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Le Faune Webmuseum Decapoda Astacidae Astacus

Il gambero di fiume europeo, Astacus astacus (Linnaeus, 1758)


Nomi comuni esteri - Inglese - noble crayfish, red-footed crayfish, red-clawed crayfish, broad-clawed crayfish, river crayfish. Francese - écrevisse à pieds rouges. Grecia - Karavida. Tedesco - edelkrebs. Olanda - rivierkreeft. Danimarca - flodkrebs. Norvegia - edelkreps, krep. Svezia - flodkrafta. Finlandia - rapu. Russia - shirokopaly rak. Polonia - rak rzeczny, rak szlachetny. Lituania- placiaznyplis vèzys. Bulgaria - recen rak. Repubblica Ceca - rak ricni. Ungheria - folyami rak. Romania - rak de riu. Ucraina - shirokopaly rak. Slovenia - jelsevec. Croazia - rijecni rak. Macedonia (FYROM) - recen rak.

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Classificazione - Regno: Animalia. Phylum: Arthropoda. Subphylum: Crustacea. Classe: Malacostraca. Ordine: Decapoda. Infraordine: Astacidea. Famiglia: Astacidae. Genere: Astacus.

Sinonimi - Cancer astacus Linnaeus, 1758. Astacus fluviatilis Fabricius, 1775. Astacus astacus colchicus Kessler, 1876. Potamobius fluviatilis balcanicus S. Karaman 1929.

Altri nomi - Astacus astacus - Faxon 1898. Astacus (Astacus) astacus - Bott 1950. Astacus (Astacus) colchicuscus - Bott 1950. Astacus (Astacus) astacus astacus - M. Karaman, 1963. Astacus (Astacus) astacus balcanicus - M. Karaman, 1963. Astacus (Astacus) astacus colchicus - M. Karaman, 1963. Astacus astacus astacus - Albrecht, 1983. Astacus astacus balcanicus - Albrecht, 1983. Astacus astacus colchicus - Albrecht, 1983.

Tassonomia - La specie Astacus astacus viene suddivisa in tre sottospecie. La sottospecie nominale, presente nella maggior parte dell'area di distribuzione. Astacus astacus balcanicus, diffusa in Albania, Grecia e Macedonia (FYROM). Astacus astacus colchicus, limitata ai corsi d'acqua della Georgia.

Fonti bibliografiche principali - "Atlas of Crayfish in Europe", Publications Scientifiques du Muséum Nationel d'Histoire Naturelle, C. Souty-Grosset, D. M. Holdich, P. Y. Noel, J.D. Reynolds, P. Haffner (editors), Paris, 2006.

 

Distribuzione di Astacus astacus da "Atlas of Crayfish in Europe" pub. MNHN, Paris.

 

Specie in origine largamente diffusa in Europa centro settentrionale ed orientale, successivamente introdotta in zone esterne all'areale originario. Il limite nord della distribuzione di A. astacus coincide con i paesi scandinavi. A sud la specie raggiunge i Balcani e la Grecia centrale, dove viene confermata. I limiti della sua diffusione ad oriente (ex URSS) sono di difficile definizione per carenza d'informazioni. In Francia il gambero di fiume è autoctono del solo nord est, successivamente la sua presenza è stata segnalata a macchia di leopardo in quasi tutto il paese (ad eccezione delle regioni mediterranee). Diffuso in svizzera, in Italia questo gambero sembra essere presente solo in poche località alpine e prealpine delle regioni settentrionali.

Bibliografia - "Atlas of Crayfish in Europe", Publications Scientifiques du Muséum Nationel d'Histoire Naturelle, C. Souty-Grosset, D. M. Holdich, P. Y. Noel, J.D. Reynolds, P. Haffner (editors), Paris, 2006.

Abrahamsson 1972. Fecundity and growth of some populations of Astacus astacus Linné in Sweden. Report of the Institute of Freshwater Research 52: 23-37.

Cukerzis 1988. Astacus astacus in Europe, in HOLDICH D.M. & LOWERY R.S. (eds), Freshwater Crayfish. Bialogy, Management and Exploitation. Croom Helm, London: 309-340.

Edsman et al. 2002. Genetic differentiation between noble crayfish, Astacus astacus (L.), populations deteded by microsatellite length variation in the RDNA ITSI region. Bulletin froncois de la Péche et de la Piscículture 367 [n° spécial écrevísses, volume 4]: 691-706.

EI Zein & Hawi 2004. Essais de I'induction d'une nouvelle espèce Astacus astacus L., écrevisse (crayfish) au Liban, étude de son adaptation et possíbilités de son élevage. L'Astaciculteur de France 79: 2-9.

Fedotov et al. 1999. Restoration of native crayfish (Astacus astacus) stocks in the waterbodies of North-West Russia. Freshwater Crayfish 12: 555-562.

Furrer et al. 1999. Freshly hatched hybrids between Astacus astocus and Astacus leptodactylus differ in chela shape from purebred offspring. Freshwater Crayfish 12: 90-97.

Goddard J.S., Hogger J.B., 1986. The current status and distribution of freshwater crayfish in Britain. Field Studies, 6: 383-396.

Groombridge, B. (ed.) 1994. 1994 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.

Hobbs H.H. Jr., 1989. An Illustrated Checklist of the American Crayfishes (Decapoda: Astacidae, Cambaridae, and Parastacidae). Smiths. Contr. Zool., 480: i-iii + 1-236.

Ingle R.W., 1997. Crayfishes, Lobsters and Crabs of Europe. An illustrated guide to common and traded species. Chapman & Hall, London: i-xi + 1-281. ISBN 0 412 71060 9.

IUCN. 1990. 1990 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Keller 1999. Ten years of trapping Astacus astocus for restocking in Lake Bronnen, a grave[ pit in Bavaría. Freshwater Craffish 12: 518-528.

Lachat & Laurent 1988. The habitats of Astacus astacus L. and Austropotomobius pallipes Lere. in the Morvan. Freshwater Croyfish 7: 61-68.

Laurent et al. 1997. Les repeuplements en Astacus astacus L. Synthèse des essais réalisés en Lorraine et en Morvan, enseignements à en tirer. L'Astaciculteur de France 51: 34-38.

Maguire et al. 2004a. Estimation of the noble crayfish (Astacus astacus L.) population size in the Velika Paklencia Stream (Croatia). Bulletin froncais de la Péche et de la Piscículture 372-373 [CRAYNET, volume 2]: 353-366.

Melhaoui & Laurent 1990. Les écrevisses (Decapoda: Astacidae et Cambaridae) introduites dans les eaux continentales du Maroc: historique et situation actuelle. Terre vive 80: 9-16.

Peter Scheffel & Bernd Sceiba. Plants and Animals of Central Europe (Pflanzen und Tiere).

Pursiainen & Erkamo 1991. Low temperatures as limiting factor for the noble crayfish (Astacus astacus) populations. Fínnish Fisheries Research 12: 179-185.

Schulz 2000. Status of the noble crayfish Astacus astacus (L.) in Germany: monitoring protocol and the use of RAPD markers to assess the genetic structure of populations. Bulletin fronçois de la Péche et de la Pisciculture

Schulz et al. 2004. Assessment of DNA variations of the noble crayfish (Astacus astacus L.) in Germany and Poland using InterSample Sequence Repeats (ISSRs). Bulletin français de la Péche et de la Pisciculture 372-373: 387-399.

Sint & Fureder 2004. Reintroduction of Astacus astacus L. in East Tyrol. Bulletin français de la Péche et de la Pisciculture 372-373 [CRAYNET, volume 2]: 301-314.

Skurdal & Taugbol 2002. Astacus, in HOLDICH D.M. (ed.), Biolology of Freshwater Crayfish. Blackwell Science Ltd., Oxford: 467-510 + pl. 34-41.

Skurdal et al. 1990. A 6-year study of Thelohania contejeani parasitism of the noble crayfish, Astacus astacus (L.) in Lake Steinsfjorden, S. E. Norway. lournal of Fish Diseases 13: 411-415.

Skurdal et al. 2002. Management strategies, yeld and population development of the noble crayfish Astacus astacus in lake Steinsfjorden. Bulletin français de la Péche et de la Pisciculture 367 [n° spécial écrevisses, volume 4]: 845-860.

Struzynski 2002. The program for restocking noble crayfish (Astacus astacus L.) in middle-east Poland. Freshwater Crayfish 13: 240-244.

Taugbol 1993, 2004a. Exploitation is a prerequisite for conservation of Astacus astacus. Bulletin français de la Péche et de la Pisciculture 372-373 [CRAYNET, volume 2]: 275-279.

Taugbol 1993, 2004b. Reintroduction of noble crayfish Astacus astacus after crayfish plague in Norway. Bulletin fronçois de la Péche et de la Piscículture 372-373 [CRAYNET, volume 2]: 315-328.

Taugbol & Souty-Grosset 2004. Les écrevisses européennes autochtones, plus spécialement Astacus astacus: Reliant socioéconomie et conservation [= European native crayfish with a special focus on Astacus astocus, linking socioeconomics and conservation]. Bulletin fronçois de la Péche et de la Pisciculture 372-373 [CRAYNET, volume 2], 254 p.

Vigneux E., Keith P., Noël P.Y., 1993. Atlas préliminaire des crustacés décapodes d’eau douce de France. Coll. Patrimoines Naturels, Vol. 14, S.F.F., B.I.M.M.-M.N.H.N., C.S.P., Min. Env., Paris: 1-56. ISSN 1158 - 422 X; ISBN 2-86515-081-10.

Wells, S.M., Pyle, R.M. and Collins, N.M. (compilers) 1983. The IUCN Invertebrate Red Data Book. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Westman et al. 2002. Replacement of the native crayfish Astacus astacus by the introduced species Pacifastacus leniusculus in a small, enclosed Finnish lake: a 30-year study. Ecography 25 (1): 52-73.


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