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Carassio, Carassius carassius (Linnaeus, 1758)


 

Nomi dialettali italiani - Romagna - Goba. Toscana - Carassio, Zoccolo.

 

 

Nomi comuni esteriSpagna - Carpin, Tiburón blanco. Portogallo - Pimpao, Pimpão-comum. Grecia - Petaloúda. Francese - Carache, Carassin, Carouche, Carpe à la lune, Carreau, Cyprin, Gardon carpé, Meule. Inglese - Crucian, Crucian carp, English carp, Gibele, Golden carp, Yakut crucian carp. Tedesco - Bauernkarpfen, Gareisel, Gareisl, Karausche, Moorkarpfen, Schneiderkarpfen. Olanda - Kroeskarper, Steenkarper. Danimarca - Karuds, Karudse, Karusse, Søkaruds, Søkarusse. Svezia - Ruda. Norvegia - Karuss. Finlandia - Ruutana. Russo - Karas' obyknovennyi, Karas zvychajnyi, Kruglyi, Obyknovennyi karas. Estonia - Crucian. Polonia - Karas, Karas pospolity. Repubblica Ceca - Karas obecny, Karas obycajny, Karas bahenní. Slovacchia - Karas obycajný. Ungheria - Kárász. Romania - Caracuda, Caracuda rotunda, Garasita, Caras. Albania - Karasi. Serbia - Karas. Slovenia - Koreselj. Turchia - Havuz baligi, Kirmizi balik. Etiopia - Bilcaa, Bilcha. Giappone - Funa. India - Gang gad. Nepal - Rato machha.

 

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Carassius carassius (Linnaeus, 1758). Systema Nat. ed. 10 v. 1 321. Sinonimo senior, nuova combinazione, nomenclatura ICZN valida.

Cyprinus carassius Linnaeus, 1758. Systema Nat. ed. 10 v. 1 321. Cyrinus carassus presente nelle prime fonti di letteratura è errore di ortografia. Status: nomenclatura originaria, non valida. Opinioni: nomenclatura specifica valida come Carassius carassius (Linnaeus 1758), secondo Berg 1949:821, Chen & Huang 1977:431, Lelek 1987:168, Pequeño 1989:40, Talwar & Jhingran 1991:162, Coad 1995:15, Zhu 1995:99, Economidis 1995:208, Mrakovcic et al. 1995:184, Chereshnev 1996:599, Coad 1996:84, Kottelat 1997:51, Reshetnikov et al. 1997:736, Bogutskaya 1998:92, Kullander et al. 1999:108, Fricke 1999:23, Fuller et al. 1999:56, Luo & Yue in Yue 2000:427, Bogutskaya et al. 2001:44, Szczerbowski & Szczerbowski in Banarescu & Paepke 2002:43, Hanel 2003:53, Seegers et al. 2003:33, Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:60, Vassilev & Pehlivanov 2005:168, Hanel & Lusk 2005:260, Kottelat 2006:27, Ocock et al. 2006:31, Fricke 2007:28, Fricke et al. 2007:36, Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:144, Shrestha 2008:56, Ninua & Japoshvili 2008:165, Kalous et al. 2012:11, Parin et al. 2014:70, Barbieri et al. 2015:49, Çiçek et al. 2015:144, Zhang et al. 2016:84, Romanov et al. 2017:821, Fricke et al. 2018:58, Rylková et al. 2018:[6]. Neotipo designato da Fricke 1999:23, ma ritirato in Fricke 2000:639. Località tipo: stagni d'Europa. Tipo: non è noto nessun esemplare tipo.

Carassius carassius carassius (Linnaeus, 1758). Systema Nat. ed. 10 v. 1 321. Sinonimo senior, nuova combinazione, nomenclatura ICZN non valida.

Carassius gibelio (non Bloch, 1782). Errore d'identificazione, nomenclatura Iczn non valida.

Cyprinus moles Agassiz, 1835. Status: nomen nudum, nomenclatura non valida.

Cyprinus charax Lesniewski, 1837. Rybactwo krajowe czyli historyja naturalna ryb krajowych. I. Kalendarz Rybacki. Zawadzdi & Wecki, Warsaw. Nat. Hist. Inland Fish 360 pp.; 53. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Carassius carassius (Linnaeus 1758), secondo Kottelat 1997:51, Szczerbowski & Szczerbowski in Banarescu & Paepke 2002:43. Località tipo: Polonia. Tipo: non è noto nessun esemplare tipo.

Carassius charax (Lesniewski, 1837). Nat. Hist. Inland Fish 53. Sinonimo junior, nuova combinazione, nomenclatura ICZN non valida.  Nuova nomenclatura per "Cyprinus charax" Lesniewski, 1837, vedere sopra.

Carassius humilis Heckel, 1837. Ichthyologische Beiträge zu den Familien der Cottoiden, Scorpaenoiden, Gobioiden und Cyprinoiden. Ann. Wien. Mus. Naturges. 143-164; v. 2 156 Pl. 9 (fig. 4). Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Carassius carassius (Linnaeus 1758), secondo Berg 1949:821, Lelek 1987:168, Kottelat 1997:51, Szczerbowski & Szczerbowski in Banarescu & Paepke 2002:43. Sinonimo di Carassius carassius (Linnaeus 1758), ma spesso trattato come forma distinta "humilis" Heckel 1837, per Szczerbowski & Szczerbowski in Banarescu & Paepke 2002:45. Località tipo: lago nella Piana della Stippa, Palermo, Sicilia, Italia. Tipo: nessuno. Sintipi: (15) NMW 56108 (8).

Carassius moles Nordmann, 1840. Nomen nudum, nomenclatura ICZN non valida.

Carassius vulgaris Nordmann, 1840. Observations sur la fauna pontique. In: A. de Démidoff. Voyage dans la Russie méridionale et la Crimée. Vol. III. Paris. Voyage Russie Mérid. 353-635; 479. Sostituzione, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Cambio di nome non necessario per "Cyprinus carassius" Linnaeus 1758. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Carassius carassius (Linnaeus 1758), secondo Berg 1949:821, Szczerbowski & Szczerbowski in Banarescu & Paepke 2002:43.

Cyprinus gibelioides Cantor, 1842. General features of Chusan, with remarks on the flora and fauna of that island. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (N. S.) 265-278, 361-370, 481-493; v. 9 485. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Carassius carassius (Linnaeus 1758), secondo Chen & Huang 1977:432. Sinonimo di Carassius auratus (Linnaeus 1758), per Luo & Yue in Yue 2000:429. Sinonimo di Carassius auratus (Linnaeus 1758), sottospecie "auratus" (Linnaeus 1758), per Szczerbowski in Banarescu & Paepke 2002:5. Località tipo: isola di Chusan, Cina. Tipo: non è noto nessun esemplare tipo.

Cyprinus moles Valenciennes, 1842. (ex Agassiz) In Cuvier & Valenciennes. Histoire naturelle des poissons. Tome seizième. Livre dix-huitième. Les Cyprinoïdes. Hist. Nat. Poiss. i-xx + 1-472; v. 16 89. Comparso come nomen nudum in Agassiz 1835:37; anche in Nordmann 1840:480. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Carassius carassius (Linnaeus 1758), secondo Kottelat 1997:51. Catalogo: Bertin & Estève 1948:11. Località tipo: bacino del fiume Danubio. Tipo: nessuno. Sintipi: MNHN 3406 (2).

Cyprinus moles Selys-Longchamps, 1842. Faune belge. Première partie. Indication méthodique des mammifères, oiseaux, reptiles et poissons, observés jusqu'ici en Belgique. Faune Belge i-xii + 1-310; 200. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Independente da e comparso più tardi di "Cyprinus moles" Valenciennes 1842 (vedere Kottelat 1997:51). Opinioni - Sinonimo di Carassius carassius (Linnaeus 1758), secondo Kottelat 1997:51, Szczerbowski & Szczerbowski in Banarescu & Paepke 2002:43. Località tipo: Longchamps, Belgium.

Carassius linnaei Bonaparte, 1845. Catalogo metodico dei Ciprinidi d'Europa, e rilievi sul volume XVII dell'istoria naturale dei pesci del Sig. Valenciennes. Milano. Cat. Ciprinidi 1-20; 3. Anche in Bonaparte 1846:27. Sostituzione, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Cambio di nome non necessario per "Cyprinus carassius" Linnaeus 1758. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Carassius carassius (Linnaeus 1758), secondo Kottelat 1997:51.

Carassius coeruleus Basilewsky, 1855. Ichthyographia Chinae Borealis. Nouv. Mém. Soc. Imp. Natur. Moscou 215-263; v. 10 229 Pl. 9 (fig. 2). Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Carassius carassius (Linnaeus 1758), secondo Chen & Huang 1977:432. Sinonimo di Carassius auratus (Linnaeus 1758), per Luo & Yue in Yue 2000:429. Località tipo: nord della Cina. Tipo: nessun tipo al ZIN.

Carassius discolor Basilewsky, 1855. Nouv. Mém. Soc. Imp. Natur. Moscou v. 10 229. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Carassius carassius (Linnaeus 1758), secondo Chen & Huang 1977:432. Sinonimo di Carassius auratus (Linnaeus 1758), per Luo & Yue in Yue 2000:429. Località tipo: nord della Cina. Tipo: nessun tipo al ZIN.

Carassius pekinensis Basilewsky, 1855. Nouv. Mém. Soc. Imp. Natur. Moscou v. 10 229 Pl. 3 (fig. 3). Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Carassius carassius (Linnaeus 1758), secondo Chen & Huang 1977:432. Sinonimo di Carassius auratus (Linnaeus 1758), per Luo & Yue in Yue 2000:429. Località tipo: Beijing [Pechino], Cina. Tipo: nessun tipo al ZIN.

Cyprinus gibelio minutus Kessler, 1856. Natural history of the provinces belonging to the Kiev educational district. Fishes. Kiev. Nat. Hist. Kiev. Dist. 1-98; 42. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Carassius carassius (Linnaeus 1758), secondo Berg 1949:821, Kottelat 1997:51, Bogutskaya 1998:92, Szczerbowski & Szczerbowski in Banarescu & Paepke 2002:43. Località tipo: piccoli stagni nei pressi di Kiev, Ucarina. Tipo: nessuno. Sintipi: ZIN 7192 (? non presente nel 1997).

Carassius gibelio minutus (Kessler, 1856). Nat. Hist. Kiev. Dist. 42. Sinonimo junior, nuova combinazione, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Nuova nomenclatura per "Cyprinus gibelio minutus" Kessler, 1856.

Carassius oblongus Heckel & Kner, 1858. Die Süsswasserfische der Österreichischen Monarchie, mit Rücksicht auf die angränzenden Länder. Leipzig. Süsswasserfische Osterr. Monarchie i-xii + 1-388; 73 Fig. 33. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Carassius carassius (Linnaeus 1758), secondo Berg 1949:821, Kottelat 1997:51, Szczerbowski & Szczerbowski in Banarescu & Paepke 2002:43. Località tipo: vicinanze di Lvov e fiume Stryi, Ucraine. Tipo: nessuno. Sintipi: NMW 56106 (2), ?56133 (1).

Carassius vulgaris gibbosus Walecki, 1863. Materyaly do fauny ichtyologicznéj Polski. Biblioteka Warszawska. Wiadomosci Z Nauk 325-364; v. 4 358. Nomenclatura infrasubspecifica non disponibile, non valida secondo ICZN. Opinioni - In sinonimia di Carassius carassius (Linnaeus 1758), secondo Kottelat 1997:51.

Carassius vulgaris subventrosus Walecki, 1863. Wiadomosci Z Nauk v. 4 358. Nomenclatura infrasubspecifica non disponibile, non valida secondo ICZN. Opinioni - In sinonimia di Carassius carassius (Linnaeus 1758), secondo Kottelat 1997:51.

Carassius linnei Malm, 1877. Göteborgs och Bohusläns fauna, Ryggradsdjuren. Göteborg. Göteborgs Bohusläns Fauna 1-674; 556. Sostituzione, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Cambio di nome non necessario per "Cyprinus carassius" Linnaeus 1758. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Carassius carassius (Linnaeus 1758), secondo Kottelat 1997:51. Originariamente scritto "Linnéi".

Carassius linnei lacustrus Malm, 1877. Göteborgs Bohusläns Fauna 556. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Considerata da Kottelat 1997:51 nomenclatura infrasubspecifica e non disponibile. Opinioni - In sinonimia di Carassius carassius (Linnaeus 1758), secondo Kottelat 1997:51, Szczerbowski & Szczerbowski in Banarescu & Paepke 2002:43. Provenienza del materiale: fiume Goeta Elf nei pressi di Göteborg, Tingstad, Göteborg, Svezia.

Carassius linnei piscinarum Malm, 1877. Göteborgs Bohusläns Fauna 556. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Status- Considerata da Kottelat 1997:51 nomenclatura infrasubspecifica e non disponibile. Opinioni - In sinonimia di Carassius carassius (Linnaeus 1758), secondo Kottelat 1997:51. Provenienza del materiale: Göteborg, Svezia e Copenhagen, Danimarca.

Carassius auratus wui Tchang, 1930. Contribution à l'étude morphologique, biologique et taxonomique des Cyprinidés du Bassin du Yangtze. Thèsis Facult. Sci. Univ. Paris (Ser. A) 1-159; No. 209 (order no. 233) 65. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Carassius carassius (Linnaeus 1758), secondo Chen & Huang 1977:432. Sinonimo di Carassius auratus (Linnaeus 1758), secondo Luo & Yue in Yue 2000:430. Catalogo: Bertin & Estève 1948:12. Località tipo: Chekiang, Cina. Tipo: MNHN 1934-0014.

Carassius carassius jacuticus Kirillov, 1956. Vodoemy Yakutii i ikh ryby. Yakutsk. Nomenclatura discutibile, non valida per ICZN. Opinioni - Discutibile sinonimo di Carassius carassius (Linnaeus 1758), secondo Kottelat 1997:51. Sinonimo di Carassius carassius (Linnaeus 1758), ma valida sottospecie, per Chereshnev 1996:599, Chereshnev et al. 2001:41 (datato 1972), Fedorov et al. 2003:25. Sinonimo di Carassius auratus (Linnaeus 1758), sottospecie "gibelio" (Bloch 1783), secondo Szczerbowski in Banarescu & Paepke 2002:6. Originale non visionato. Preso da Kottelat 1997:51 che ha trovato il nome in Kirillov 1962. Vedere anche Bogutskaya 1998:92.

 

 

Note sulla sistematica - Il carassio risulta affine alla carpa, Cyprinus carpio, con la quale produce ibridi che talvolta sono utilizzati in piscicoltura, essendo molto robusti, resistenti alle malattie e dotati di un buon tasso di crescita; gli ibridi prodotti mediante fecondazione artificiale, sono sterili.

 

 

Fonti bibliografiche principaliKottelat M. and J. Freyhof 2007. Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Kottelat, Cornol, Switzerland and Freyof, Berlin, Germany. Pagina 144 - 145.

 

 

Distribuzione di Carassius carassius secondo IUCN

 

Il Carassio è diffuso in varie regioni europee, soprattutto centrali, settentrionali e balcaniche, ma soltanto in parte vi è indigeno. Lo si trova, ad esempio, nel sud est dell'Inghilterra, nella Francia del nord est, in Belgio, Germania, Romania, ecc. Il suo areale si estende con continuità a gran parte dell'Asia centro settentrionale. In Italia è scarso. Le notizie sulla sua distribuzione sono molto frammentarie. E' sicura la sua presenza nel bacino padano mentre, nelle altre regioni, è più probabile che siano stati introdotti soltanto C. auratus e C. gibelio.

 

Introduzioni di Carassius carassius
Periodo Provenienza Paese ospite

Acclimatazione

IXX secolo

ignota

Italia

probabile

prima del XVIII sec.

Europa dell'est

Belgio

si

non conosciuto

ignota

USA

no

non conosciuto

ignota

Francia

si

non conosciuto

ignota

Grecia

probabile

non conosciuto

ignota

Iran

non conosciuta

non conosciuto

ignota

Israele

si

non conosciuto

ignota

Kenia

non conosciuta

non conosciuto

ignota

Nepal

non conosciuta

non conosciuto

ignota

Etiopia

non conosciuta

non conosciuto

ignota

Cipro

si

non conosciuto

ignota

Croazia

probabile

non conosciuto

ignota

Cile

si

1993 - 1994

ignota

Turchia

si

1870

Gran Bretagna

India

si

1876

ignota

Australia

non conosciuta

1915

Europa

Sri Lanka

probabile

1964

Giappone

Filippine

si

1980

Giappone

Tailandia

probabile no

 

 

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