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Carpa, Cyprinus carpio, Linnaeus 1758


 

Note sul nome italiano - In epoca classica questa specie doveva essere assente dalla Grecia, quindi il nome greco "ciprinòs " indicava, se non esattamente la Carpa, per lo meno un ciprinide.

 

 

Nomi dialettali italiani - Veneto - Bulbero, Gobbo. Toscana - Reina, Regina. Lazio - Regina scura.

 

 

Nomi comuni esteri - Francese - Carpe, Carpeau, Carpo, Carpat, Escarpo, Kerpaille, Kerpe, Kerpen. Inglese - Carp, Common carp, Wild common carp, European carp, Asian carp, German carp, Aischgrund carp, Leather carp, Mirror carp. Gaelico - Carban. Galles - Cerpyn. Tedesco - Karpfen, Karpen, Weißfische. Spagna - Carpa. Portogallo - Carpa. Danimarca - Karpe, Læderkarpe, Skælkarpe, Spejlkarpe. Olanda - Karper, Karp. Svezia - Karp. Norvegia - Karpe. Islanda - Karpar. Finlandia - Karppi. Grecia - Kyprínos, Cyprinos. Russo - Karp, Korop, Sazan. Estonia - Harilik karpkala, Harilik sasaan, Karpkala. Lettonia - Karpa. Lituania - Karpis. Polonia - Karp, Karp dziki a. sazan. Repubblica Ceca - Kapr mahujský, Kapr obecny. Romania - Crap, Crapcean, Ciortan, Ciortanica, Ciortocrap, Ciuciulean, Saran, Sulari, Suloi, Olocari. Ungheria - Ponty. Bulgaria - Sharan. Albania - Krapi, Krapuliq, Lakeç, Pendëkuqi. Macedonia - Krap. Serbia - Saran. Turchia - Sazan baligi, Adi pullu. Israele - Karpion. Giappone - Koi. Malesia - Ikan mas, Leekoh, Lauk mas. Cina - Lei ue. Etiopia - Abba samuel, Tikure. Vietnam - Cá Chép. Cambogia - Cá dáy, Cá gái, Cá gáy. Laos - Pa nai, Pba ni. Tailandia- Pla nai, Trey kap. Khashmir - Punjabe gad. Singalese - Rata pethiya.

 

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Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758. Systema Nat. ed. 10 v. 1 320. Catalogo: Wheeler 1958:212. Sinonimo senior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN valida. Opinioni - Nomenclatura specifica valida come Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus 1758, secondo Berg 1949:831, Okada 1961:521, Chen & Huang 1977:411, Mai 1978:31, Lee et al. 1980:152, Coad 1981:10, Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:95, Cadwallader & Backhouse 1983:161, Sawada in Masuda et al. 1984:58, Wang 1984:14, Kuang in Kuang et al. 1986:139, Lelek 1987:132, Robison & Buchanan 1988:176, Paxton et al. 1989:216, Smith 1986:121, Pequeño 1989:40, Paulin et al. 1989:81, Kawanabe & Mizuno 1989:334, McAllister 1990:59, Tomelleri & Eberle 1990:79, Allen & Coates 1990:56, Page & Burr 1991:64, Pethiyagoda 1991:63, Talwar & Jhingran 1991:184, Coad 1991:17, Liu in Pan et al. 1991:225, Wu & Wu 1992:516, Allen et al. 1992:298, Boschung 1992:48, Etnier & Starnes 1993:161, Skelton 1993:188, Kottelat et al. 1993:35, La Rivers 1994:449, Ding 1994:414, Jenkins & Burkhead 1994:272, Warren et al. 1994:132, Baxter & Stone 1995:66, Stauffer et al. 1995:75, Cross & Collins 1995:59, Zhu 1995:98, Sato 1995:48, Mrakovcic et al. 1995:184, Brumley in McDowall 1996:101, Rainboth 1996:82, Gómez & Chebez 1996:57, Haro et al. 1996:6, Coad 1996:71, Coad 1996:84, Sigler & Sigler 1996:70, Mettee et al. 1996:179, Cheng & Zhou 1997:184, Kottelat 1997:56, Murdy et al. 1997:84, Kim 1997:156, Kim 1997:508, Vu & Nguyen 1997:26, Takahashi et al. 1997:42, Reshetnikov et al. 1997:737, Bogutskaya 1998:92, Coad 1998:102, Sato et al. 1998:30, Manimekalan 1998:434, Scott & Crossman 1998:407, Briolay et al. 1998:101, Sverlij et al. 1998:42, Kullander et al. 1999:107, Fricke 1999:84, Mizuno et al. 1999:5, Fuller et al. 1999:67, Azeroual et al. 2000:20, Coad & Abdoli 2000:56, Dyer 2000:89, Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:72, Luo & Yue in Yue 2000:410, Lyons et al. 2000:47, Nakabo 2000:253, Rafique 2000:324, Tsigenopoulos & Berrebi 2000:172, Matsuura et al. 2000:78, Bogutskaya et al. 2001:44, Hutchins 2001:21, Kottelat 2001:45, Pietsch et al. 2001:139, Sakai et al. 2001:87, Tang et al. 2001:13, Wang et al. 2001:163, Bianco & Ketmaier 2001:194, Kim & Park 2002:52, Allen et al. 2002:361, Ross et al. 2001:152, Youn 2002:157, 501, Wydoski & Whitney 2003:125, Bailey et al. 2004:76, Nelson et al. 2004:69, Miller & Robison 2004:100, Boschung & Mayden 2004:176, Hanel & Lusk 2005:268, Hammer et al. 2012:66. Nomenclatura specifica valida come Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus 1758, a volte come sottospecie carpio Linnaeus 1758, secondo Zheng et al. 1989:231, Barus et al. in Bănărescu & Paepke 2002:115, Gabrielyan 2001:27, Skelton 2001:188, Nakabo 2002:253, Moyle 2002:172, López et al. 2002:63, Rafique et al. 2003:97, Mirza 2003:12, López et al. 2003:9, Jang et al. 2003:119, Yadav 2003:9, Hanel 2003:53, Seegers et al. 2003:34, Larson & Pidgeon 2004:196, Hammer & Walker 2004:91, Menni 2004:71, Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:61, Vassilev & Pehlivanov 2005:168, Mundy 2005:151, Scharpf 2005:15, Kottelat 2006:30, Allen et al. 2006:346, Fricke et al. 2007:39, Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:147, McPhail 2007:72, Shrestha 2008:63, Allen et al. 2008:195, Ninua & Japoshvili 2008:165, Fricke et al. 2009:23, Minckley & Marsh 2009:179, Matsunuma et al. 2010:82, Esmaeili et al. 2010:369, Page & Burr 2011:154, Fricke et al. 2011:355, Marshall 2011:119, Barriga S. 2012:104, Page et al. 2013:70, Gurung et al. 2013:4882, Kottelat 2013:94, Angulo et al. 2013:991, Parin et al. 2014:74, Litz & Koerber 2014:6, Sarmiento et al. 2014:187, Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2015:870, McDowall & Stewart 2015:314, Pietsch & Orr 2015:19, Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:70, Barbieri et al. 2015:51, Esmaeili et al. 2015:120, Mirande & Koerber 2015:10, Çiçek et al. 2015:144, Miesen et al. 2016:82, Bertaco et al. 2016:435, Petry et al. 2016:300, Koeda et al. 2016:10, Nión et al. 2016:26, Esmaeili et al. 2017:46, Labatos 2017:3, Romanov et al. 2017:821, Esmaeili et al. 2018:26, Fricke et al. 2018:59, Robins et al. 2018:85. Località tipo: Europa. Tipo: nessuno. Sintipi: BMNH 1853.11.12.139 [coll. Gronovius] (1, pelle).

Cyprinus carpio carpio Linnaeus, 1758. Systema Nat. ed. 10 v. 1 320. Nome ambiguo, cambio di grado, nomenclatura ICZN non valida.

Cyprinus carpio communis Linnaeus, 1758. Systema Nat. ed. 10 v. 1 320. Nome ambiguo, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida.

Cyprinus cirrosus Schaeffer, 1760. Epistola ad Regio-Borussicam Societatem litterariam Duisburgensem, de studii ichthyologici faciliori ac tutiori methodo, adiectis nonnullis speciminibus. Ratisbonae. Epist. Borus. Studii 1-24; 17 Fig. 1-3. Nome ambiguo, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Lavoro respinto (Opinione 345). Opinioni - In sinonimia di Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus 1758, secondo Kottelat 1997:56.

Cyprinus rexcyprinorum Bloch, 1782. M. Marcus Elieser Bloch's ..., ausübenden Arztes zu Berlin, Oekonomische Naturgeschichte der Fische Deutschlands. Berlin. Fische Deutschlands 1-128; v. 1 107, 193 Pl. 17. Catalogo: Paepke 1999:73-74. Originariamente scritto Rex cyprinorum, ma apparentemente inteso come specie. Cyprinus macrolepidotus Schinz 1822 è una sostituzione di nome non necessaria (vedere Daget 1968:1058. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus 1758, secondo Kottelat 1997:56, Barus et. al. in Banarescu & Paepke 2002:85. Località tipo: vicinanze di Torgau, Dresda, Germania; Franken, Germania; Böhmen, Repubblica Ceca. Tipo: nessuno. Sintipi: ZMB 3195 (2), 32626 (1, pelle sinistra).

Cyprinus alepidotus Bloch, 1784. Fische Deutschlands v. 3 154. Nome ambiguo, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Nomenclatura non disponibile, si tratta di parte della diagnosi di Cyprinus nudus. Opinioni - In sinonimia di Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus 1758, secondo Kottelat 1997:56.

Cyprinus nudus Bloch, 1784. Fische Deutschlands v. 3 178. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus 1758, secondo Kottelat 1997:56, Barus et. al. in Banarescu & Paepke 2002:85. A p. 154 dell'ittiologia di Bloch, v. 3. Località tipo: Schlesien, Polonia. Tipo: non è noto nessun esemplare tipo.

Cyprinus regius Nau, 1791. Bemerkungen zu des Herrn Prof. Sanders Beyträge zur Naturgeschichte der Fische im Rhein. Der Naturforscher 24-34; n° 25 29. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Sostituzione di nome non necessaria per Cyprinus rexcyprinorum Bloch 1782.

Cyprinus carpio caspicus Walbaum, 1792. Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium. In quibus systema totum ichthyologiae proponitur cum classibus, ordinibus, generum characteribus, specierum differentiis, observationibus plurimis. Redactis speciebus 242 ad genera 52. Ichthyologiae pars III. Ant. Ferdin. Rose, Grypeswaldiae [Greifswald]. Artedi Piscium [i-viii] + 1-723; Pt. 3 17. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus 1758, secondo Kottelat 1997:56, Barus et. al. in Banarescu & Paepke 2002:85 come caspius. Località tipo: foci dei fiumi Volga e Tanais [Don], Russia e Ucraina. Tipo: non è noto nessun esemplare tipo.

Cyprinus rex Walbaum, 1792. Artedi Piscium Pt. 3 24. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus 1758, secondo Kottelat 1997:56, Barus et. al. in Banarescu & Paepke 2002:85. Località tipo: Germania e Repubblica Ceca. Tipo: non è noto nessun esemplare tipo.

Cyprinus macrolepidotus Meidinger, 1794. Icones piscium Austriae indigenorum, quos collegit vivisque coloribus espresos edidit C. Baro de Meidinger. Vindobonae. 5 parts, 50 pls. Icones Piscium Austriae; Part 5 xli Pl. 40. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus 1758, secondo Kottelat 1997:56. Località tipo: fiume Danubio, Austria. Tipo: nessuno. Sintipi: collocazione attuale ignota.

Cyprinus rondeletii Shaw, 1802. In Shaw & Nodder. The Naturalist's Miscellany, or coloured figures of natural objects; drawn and described from nature. London. Naturalist's Misc.; Pl. 556. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus 1758, secondo Kottelat 1997:56, Barus et. al. in Banarescu & Paepke 2002:85. Località tipo: Lione, Francia. Tipo: non è noto nessun esemplare tipo.

Cyprinus carpio specularis Lacepède, 1803. Histoire naturelle des poissons. Hist. Nat. Poiss. i-lxviii + 1-803 + index; v. 5 489, 528. Sinonimo junior, cambio di grado, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus 1758, ma valida sottospecie secondo Das et al. 1964:103. Sinonimo di Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus 1758, secondo Kottelat 1997:56. Nuova nomenclatura non necessaria per Cyprinus rexcyprinorum Bloch 1782.

Cyprinus specularis Lacepède, 1803. Hist. Nat. Poiss. v. 5 489, 528. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus 1758, ma valida sottospecie secondo Das et al. 1964:103. Sinonimo di Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus 1758, secondo Kottelat 1997:56. Nuova nomenclatura non necessaria per "Cyprinus rexcyprinorum" Bloch 1782.

Cyprinus coriaceus Lacepède, 1803. Hist. Nat. Poiss. v. 5 489, 528. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus 1758, secondo Kottelat 1997:56. Nuova nomenclatura non necessaria per Cyprinus nudus Bloch 1784.

Cyprinus viridescens Lacepède, 1803. Hist. Nat. Poiss. v. 5 492, 541 Pl. 17 (fig. 1). Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus 1758, secondo Kottelat 1997:56, Barus et. al. in Banarescu & Paepke 2002:85. Località tipo: Rouen, Francia. Tipo: nessuno.

Cyprinus nigroauratus Lacepède, 1803. Hist. Nat. Poiss. v. 5 492, 547 Pl. 16 (fig. 2). Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus 1758, secondo Chen & Huang 1977:414, Zheng et al. 1989:232, Wu & Wu 1992:516, Luo & Yue in Yue 2000:411, Barus et. al. in Banarescu & Paepke 2002:85. Località tipo: Cina. Tipo: non è noto nessun esemplare tipo.

Cyprinus viridiviolaceus Lacepède, 1803. Hist. Nat. Poiss. v. 5 492, 547 Pl. 16 (fig. 3). In origine scritto "viridi-violaceus". Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus 1758, secondo Chen & Huang 1977:414, Zheng et al. 1989:232, Wu & Wu 1992:516, Luo & Yue in Yue 2000:411. Sinonimo di Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus 1758, ma valida sottospecie, per Barus et. al. in Banarescu & Paepke 2002:115. Località tipo: Cina. Tipo: nessuno.

Cyprinus macrolepidotus Hartmann, 1827. Helvetische Ichthyologie; oder, Ausführliche Naturgeschichte der in der Schweiz sich vorfindenden Fische. Zurich. Helvetische Ichthyol. i-xii + 1-240; 183. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Nome precedentemente occupato da Cyprinus macrolepidotus Meidinger 1794. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus 1758, secondo Kottelat 1997:57, Barus et. al. in Banarescu & Paepke 2002:85. Località tipo: lago di Costanza, Svizzera. Tipo: nessuno.

Cyprinus carpio lacustris Fitzinger, 1832. Ueber die Ausarbeitung einer Fauna des Erzherzogthumes Oesterreich, nebst einer systematischen Aufzählung der in diesem Lande vorkommenden Säugethiere, Reptilien und Fische.... Beitr. Landesk. Oesterreich. 280-340; v. 1 333. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus 1758, secondo Kottelat 1997:57, Barus et. al. in Banarescu & Paepke 2002:85. Località tipo: lago Neusiedler, Austria. Tipo: nessuno.

Cyprinus elatus Bonaparte, 1836. Iconografia della fauna italica per le quattro classi degli animali vertebrati. Tomo III. Pesci. Roma. Iconografia, v. 3 Fasc. 15-18, puntata 80-93; v. 3 fasc. 18, punt. 92 Pl. 108 (fig. 3). Catalogo: Böhlke 1984:75 come olotipo. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus 1758, secondo Berg 1949:831, Kottelat 1997:57, Barus et. al. in Banarescu & Paepke 2002:85. Località tipo: lago di Bracciano e lago di Vico, vicino a Ronciglione e fossi intorno al lago Trajano, Italia. Tipo: nessuno. Sintipi: ANSP 6614 (1).

Cyprinus hungaricus Heckel, 1836. Über einige neue, oder nicht gehörig unterschiedene Cyprinen, nebst einer systematischen Darstellung der europäischen Gattungen dieser Gruppe. Ann. Wien. Mus. Naturges. 219-234; v. 1 (n° 10) 222 Pl. 19 (fig. 1). Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus 1758, secondo Berg 1949:831, Kottelat 1997:57, Barus et. al. in Banarescu & Paepke 2002:85. Località tipo: lago Neusiedler, Ungheria e Austria. Tipo: nessuno. Sintipi: ?NMW 10958-59 (2).

Cyprinus regina Bonaparte, 1836. Iconografia, v. 3 fasc. 18, punt. 92 Pl. 108 (fig. 1). Catalogo: Bertin & Estève 1948:11, Almaça 1969:1142, Böhlke 1984:88. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus 1758, secondo Kottelat 1997:57. Località tipo: fiumi Arno, Tevere e Aniene, laghi Trasimeno e di Bracciano, Italia. Tipo: nessuno. Sintipi: ANSP 6616-23 (8), MNHN 0751 (1), USNM 2863 [=10144] (2).

Cyprinus flavipinnis Valenciennes, 1842. Ex Kuhl & van Hasselt. In Cuvier & Valenciennes 1842. Hist. Nat. Poiss. v. 16 71 Pl. 457. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus 1758, secondo Roberts 1993:16, Barus et. al. in Banarescu & Paepke 2002:85. Informazioni sull'esemplare tipo: Roberts 1993:16. Località tipo: Buitenzorg [= Bogor, Indonesia]. Tipo: ?MNHN B-674.

Carpio flavipinna (Valenciennes, 1842). In Bleeker 1863. Nuova nomenclatura per Cyprinus flavipinnis Valenciennes, 1842, vedere sopra.

Cyprinus nordmannii Valenciennes, 1842. In Cuvier & Valenciennes. Hist. Nat. Poiss. v. 16 66 Pl. 456. Catalogo: Bertin & Estève 1948:11, Almaça 1969:1141. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus 1758, secondo Kottelat 1997:57, Barus et. al. in Banarescu & Paepke 2002:85. Località tipo: mercato di Odessa, dai fiumi Dniester e Bug, Ucraine. Tipo: MNHN 3375.

Cyprinus vittatus Valenciennes, 1842. In Cuvier & Valenciennes. Hist. Nat. Poiss. v. 16 72. Nomenclatura ICZN permanentemente non valida, occupata precedentemente da Cyprinus vittatus, Rafinesque 1817. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus 1758, secondo Barus et. al. in Banarescu & Paepke 2002:85. Località tipo: Java, Indonesia. Tipo: non è noto nessun esemplare tipo.

Cyprinus angulatus Heckel, 1843. Ichthyologie [von Syrien]. In: J. von Russegger. Reisen in Europa, Asien und Africa, mit besonderer Rücksicht auf die naturwissenschaftlichen Verhältnisse der betreffenden Länder unternommen in den Jahren 1835 bis 1841, etc. Stuttgart. Ichthyol. von Syrien 990-1099; v. 2 1013. Nomen nudum, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - In sinonimia di Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus 1758, secondo Kottelat 1997:57. Provenienza del materiale: Ungheria.

Cyprinus thermalis Heckel, 1843. Ichthyol. von Syrien v. 1 (pt 2) 1013 [23]. Nomen nudum, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Provenienza del materiale: Ungheria.

Cyprinus festetitsii Bonaparte, 1845. Catalogo metodico dei Ciprinidi d'Europa, e rilievi sul volume XVII dell' istoria naturale dei pesci del Sig. Valenciennes. Milano. Cat. Ciprinidi 1-20; 3. Nomenclatura in sinonimia, non disponibile, non valida. Opinioni - In sinonimia di Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus 1758, secondo Kottelat 1997:57.

Cyprinus fossicola Richardson, 1846. Ex Gray. Report on the ichthyology of the seas of China and Japan. Rep. Brit. Assoc. Adv. Sci. 187-320; 291. Basata soltanto su di un'illustrazione di Reeves (vedere Whitehead 1970:209, Pl. 15b). Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus 1758, secondo Wu & Wu 1992:516, Luo & Yue in Yue 2000:411, Barus et. al. in Banarescu & Paepke 2002:86. In origine scritto Cyprinus? fossicola. Località tipo: Canton, Cina. Tipo: non è noto nessun esemplare tipo.

Cyprinus acuminatus (non Richardson, 1846). Errore d'identificazione, nomenclatura ICZN non valida.

Cyprinus atrovirens Richardson, 1846. Rep. Brit. Assoc. Adv. Sci. 15th meeting [1845] 287. Basata solo su un'illustrazione di Reeves (vedere Whitehead 1970:209, Pl. 14a). Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus 1758, secondo Barus et. al. in Banarescu & Paepke 2002:86. Originariamente scritto atro-virens. Località tipo: Canton, Cina. Tipo: non è noto nessun esemplare tipo.

Cyprinus conirostris Temminck & Schlegel, 1846. See Temminck & Schlegel 1843 [ref. 4370]. Pisces, Fauna Japonica 173-269; Parts 10-14 191 Pl. 27 (fig. 2, 2a-b). Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus 1758, secondo Barus et. al. in Banarescu & Paepke 2002:85. Lectotipo designato da Boeseman 1947:153. località tipo: Giappone. Tipo: RMNH 1724 (impagliato). Paralectotipi: RMNH D1720-1723 (4, impagliati), 2428 (1).

Cyprinus flammans Richardson, 1846. Rep. Brit. Assoc. Adv. Sci. 15th meeting [1845] 288. Basata solo su un'illustrazione di Reeves (vedere Whitehead 1970:209, Pl. 15a). Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus 1758, sottospecie rubrofuscus Lacepède 1803, secondo Chen & Huang 1977:414. Sinonimo di Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus 1758, secondo Zheng et al. 1989:232, Wu & Wu 1992:516, Luo & Yue in Yue 2000:411, Barus et. al. in Banarescu & Paepke 2002:86. Località tipo: Canton, Cina. Tipo: non è noto nessun esemplare tipo.

Cyprinus haematopterus Temminck & Schlegel, 1846. Pisces, Fauna Japonica Parts 10-14 189 Pl. 96. Catalogo: Boeseman 1947:152. Nomenclatura precedentemente occupata da Cyprinus haematopterus Rafinesque 1820, non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus 1758, secondo Okada 1961:521. Erroneamente considerata valida sottospecie di Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus 1758, secondo Berg 1949:843, Chen & Huang 1977:412, Zhu 1995:98, Bogutskaya & Naseka 1996:46, Reshetnikov et al. 1997:737, Bogutskaya 1998:92, Luo & Yue in Yue 2000:411, Sheiko & Fedorov 2000:17, Chereshnev et al. 2001:42, Sideleva 2001:53, Barus et. al. in Banarescu & Paepke 2002:115, Sideleva 2003:10. Località tipo: Kiusiu, Nagasaki, Giappone. Tipo: RMNH 2400 (impagliato).

Cyprinus melanotus Temminck & Schlegel, 1846. Pisces, Fauna Japonica Parts 10-14 190 Pl. 97 (fig. 1, 1a-b). Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus 1758, secondo Okada 1961:521, Barus et. al. in Banarescu & Paepke 2002:85. Lectotipo designato da Boeseman 1947:153. Località tipo: acque dolci del Giappone. Tipo: RMNH 2399. Paralectotipi: RMNH D1874 (1, impagliato).

Cyprinus sculponeatus Richardson, 1846. Rep. Brit. Assoc. Adv. Sci. 15th meeting [1845] 290. Basata soltanto su di un'illustrazione di Reeves (vedere Whitehead 1970:209, Pl. 16b). Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus 1758, secondo Chen & Huang 1977:414, Zheng et al. 1989:232, Wu & Wu 1992:516, Luo & Yue in Yue 2000:411, Barus et. al. in Banarescu & Paepke 2002:86. Località tipo: Canton, Cina. Tipo: non è noto nessun esemplare tipo.

Carpio vulgaris Rapp, 1854. Die Fische des Bodensees. Jahresh. Ver. Vaterl. Nat. Württemberg, Stuttgart 137-175; v. 10 (n° 2) 141. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus 1758, secondo Kottelat 1997:57, Barus et. al. in Banarescu & Paepke 2002:85. Località tipo: lago di Costanza, Europa centrale. Tipo: non è noto nessun esemplare tipo.

Cyprinus chinensis Basilewsky, 1855. Ichthyographia Chinae Borealis. Nouv. Mém. Soc. Imp. Natur. Moscou 215-263; v. 10 227 Pl. 2 (fig. 3). Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus 1758,, sottospecie haematopterus Temminck & Schlegel 1842 [precedentemente occupata], secondo Chen & Huang 1977:412 Sinonimo di Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus 1758, secondo Luo & Yue in Yue 2000:411, Barus et. al. in Banarescu & Paepke 2002:86. Località tipo: Fluvio et aliis versus Sinum Tschiliensum tendentibus, Cina. Tipo: nessun tipo trovato al ZIN.

Carpio carpio gibbosus (Kessler, 1856). Natural history of the provinces belonging to the Kiev educational district. Fishes. Kiev. Nat. Hist. Kiev. Dist. 1-98; 35. Nomenclatura oggettivamente non valida, precedentemente occupata da Cyprinus gibbosus Pallas 1814. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus 1758, secondo Berg 1949:831, Kottelat 1997:57, Bogutskaya 1998:92, Barus et. al. in Banarescu & Paepke 2002:86. Località tipo: fiume Dnieper vicino a Dniepropetrovsk, Ucraina. Tipo: nessuno. Sintipi: nessuno trovato al ZIN.

Cyprinus bithynicus Richardson, 1857. On some fish from Asia Minor and Palestine. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 371-376; (pt 24) 372. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus 1758, secondo Kottelat 1997:57, Barus et. al. in Banarescu & Paepke 2002:86. Località tipo: lago Apollonia [Apulyont], Turchia. Tipo: BMNH 1856.5.2.7.

Cyprinus acuminatus Heckel & Kner, 1858. Die Süsswasserfische der Österreichischen Monarchie, mit Rücksicht auf die angränzenden Länder. Leipzig. Süsswasserfische Osterr. Monarchie i-xii + 1-388; 58 Fig. 22. Nomenclatura oggettivamente non valida, precedentemente occupata da Cyprinus acuminatus Richardson 1846.  Opinioni - Sinonimo di Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus 1758, secondo Berg 1949:831, Kottelat 1997:57. Località tipo: fiume Danubio, lago Neusiedler e lago Balaton, Austria e Ungheria. Tipo: nessuno. Sintipi: NMW 52846 (2), 52854-55 (1, 1), 52927-29 (1, 1, 1), 52950 (9), 53403 (2).

Cyprinus carpio elongatus Walecki, 1863. Materyaly do fauny ichtyologicznéj Polski. Biblioteka Warszawska. Wiadomosci Z Nauk 325-364; v. 4 341, 359. Nuova nomenclatura non necessaria per Cyprinus hungaricus Heckel 1836. Anche in Walecki 1864:37. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus 1758, secondo Kottelat 1997:57.

Cyprinus carpio monstrosus Walecki, 1863. Wiadomosci Z Nauk v. 4 341, 359. Nomen nudum, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - In sinonimia di Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus 1758, secondo Kottelat 1997:57.

Cyprinus carpio oblongus Antipa, 1909. Fauna ichtiologica a României. Publ. Fond. Adamachi Acad. Romana 1-294; v. 3 (n° 16) 117 Pl. 8 (fig. 36). Originale non visionato. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus 1758, secondo Kottelat 1997:57, Barus et. al. in Banarescu & Paepke 2002:86. Località tipo: delta del Danubio, Romania. Tipo: non è noto nessun esemplare tipo.

Cyprinus carpio anatolicus Hanko, 1924. Fische aus Klein-Asien. Ann. Hist. Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 137-158; v. 21 150 Pl. 3 (fig. 10). Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus 1758, secondo Kottelat 1997:57, Barus et. al. in Banarescu & Paepke 2002:86. Località tipo: fiume Pursak [Porsuk, Eski-Chehir e Kötschke-Kissik, Tipo: nessuno. Sintipi: collocazione attuale ignota.

Cyprinus carpio aralensis Spiczakow, 1935. Zum Problem der Rasse und des Extericurs heim Karpfen. Zeitschrift f. Fischerei ca. 400-431; v. 33 428 Fig. 7. Nomenclatura infrasubspecifica, non disponibile, non valida secondo ICZN. Opinioni - In sinonimia di Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus 1758, secondo Berg 1949:833, Kottelat 1997:57, Barus et. al. in Banarescu & Paepke 2002:86. Provenienza del materiale: mare d'Aral.

Cyprinus carpio fluviatilis Pravdin, 1945. Uch. Zap. Leningrad. Univ. n° 75 11. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus 1758, secondo Kottelat 1997:57, Barus et. al. in Banarescu & Paepke 2002:86. Località tipo: laghi delle paludi del Volga vicino a Saratov, Russia. Tipo: non è noto nessun esemplare tipo.

Cyprinus carpio brevicirri Misik, 1958. Biometrika Dunajského kapra ("Cyprinus carpio carpio" L.) z Dunajského systému na Slovinsku. Biol. Práce 55-125; v. 4 (n° 6) 70. Nomenclatura infrasubspecifica, non disponibile, non valida secondo ICZN. Opinioni - In sinonimia di Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus 1758, secondo Kottelat 1997:57.

Cyprinus carpio longicirri Misik, 1958. Biol. Práce v. 4 (n° 6) 70. Nomenclatura infrasubspecifica, non disponibile, non valida secondo ICZN. Opinioni - In sinonimia di Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus 1758, secondo Kottelat 1997:57.

 

 

Fonti bibliografiche principali - Porcellotti, S., 2005. Pesci d'Italia, ittiofauna delle acque dolci. Casa Editrice Plan, Firenze. Pagina 44 - 45.

 

 

Distribuzione di Cyprinus carpio secondo IUCN

 

Oggi la carpa ha diffusione cosmopolita. Vive in Europa (escluse l'Islanda, la Scozia, la Penisola Scandinava settentrionale e, in parte, la centrale), in Asia, in Africa, in Australia e nelle Americhe. In Italia la carpa si trova nei laghi sub montani (1194 m d'altitudine nel lago Santo, in Trentino) e nei tratti inferiori e medi dei fiumi. Nella carta sono di colore scuro le zone dove si ritiene che la specie sia autoctona.

Note sulla distribuzione - Secondo il grande biologo e ittiologo romeno P. Banarescu (1964), la carpa è autoctona di due aree geografiche non continue: quella dell'Europa centro-orientale e dell'Asia centro-occidentale (a est, sino al Bassopiano Turanico, tra i 56° e i 37° circa di lat. Nord) e quella dell'Asia orientale (dal bacino dell'Amur fino al Giappone e all'Indocina, tra i 54° e i 10° circa di lat. Nord). Nell'Europa occidentale e meridionale la carpa fu introdotta probabilmente dai Romani, soprattutto tra il 10 e il 100 d.C., ma soltanto nei secoli XIV-XVI la specie raggiunse una grande diffusione. 

 

Introduzioni di Cyprinus carpio carpio
Periodo Provenienza Paese ospite Acclimatazione

XVIII secolo

Inghilterra

Irlanda

si

1900 - 1924

Israele

Tailandia

si

1900 - 1924

ignota

Hawaii

si

1925 - 1949

Giappone

Taiwan

si

XIX secolo

Cina

Indonesia

si

prima del XVIII sec.

ignota

Svezia

si

prima del XVIII sec.

ignota

Spagna

si

prima del XVIII sec.

ignota

Portogallo

si

prima del XVIII sec.

ignota

Svizzera

si

prima del XVIII sec.

Germania

Olanda

si

prima del XVIII sec.

ignota

Malta

si

prima del XVIII sec.

ignota

Norvegia

si

prima del XVIII sec.

ignota

Lussemburgo

si

prima del XVIII sec.

ignota

Liechtenstein

si

prima del XVIII sec.

ignota

Albania

si

prima del XVIII sec.

ignota

Belgio

si

prima del XVIII sec.

ignota

Danimarca

si

prima del XVIII sec.

Europa Centrale

Francia

si

prima del XVIII sec.

ignota

Germania

si

prima del XVIII sec.

ignota

Grecia

si

prima del XVIII sec.

ignota

Italia

si

non conosciuto

ignota

Guam

si

non conosciuto

Israele

Haiti

probabile no

non conosciuto

ignota

Hong Kong

non conosciuta

non conosciuto

ignota

Kyrgystan

non conosciuta

non conosciuto

ignota

Lesotho

non conosciuta

non conosciuto

ignota

Lettonia

non conosciuta

non conosciuto

ignota

Lituania

non conosciuta

non conosciuto

ignota

Polinesia Francese

non conosciuta

non conosciuto

ignota

Ecuador

probabile no

non conosciuto

ignota

Cecoslovacchia

si

non conosciuto

ignota

Croazia

probabile

non conosciuto

ignota

Quebec

si

non conosciuto

ignota

Cambogia

non conosciuta

non conosciuto

ignota

Bielorussia

non conosciuta

non conosciuto

ignota

Birmania

non conosciuta

non conosciuto

ignota

Brunei

non conosciuta

non conosciuto

ignota

Bosnia Erzegovina

si

non conosciuto

Sud Africa

Mozambico

non conosciuta

non conosciuto

Sud Africa

Namibia

si

non conosciuto

ignota

Tajikistan

non conosciuta

non conosciuto

ignota

Turchia

probabile

non conosciuto

ignota

Tanzania

non conosciuta

non conosciuto

ignota

Jamaica

non conosciuta

non conosciuto

ignota

Togo

non conosciuta

non conosciuto

ignota

Siria

si

non conosciuto

Sud Africa

Swaziland

non conosciuta

non conosciuto

Cina

Singapore

si

non conosciuto

ignota

Arabia Saudita

non conosciuta

non conosciuto

ignota

Isole Azorre

si

non conosciuto

ignota

Paraguay

non conosciuta

non conosciuto

ignota

Nuova Caledonia

non conosciuta

non conosciuto

ignota

Reunion

non conosciuta

non conosciuto

ignota

Slovenia

si

1927 - 1928

Jugoslavia

Israele

si

1931 - 1934

Jugoslavia

Fiume Giordano

si

1968 - 1969

Romania

Iran

si

1968 - 1969

Cina

Iran

si

1970 - 1979

Cina

Afghanistan

si

1980 - 1989

Tailandia

Polonia

si

1980 - 1989

Ruanda

Burundi

non conosciuta

1980 - 1989

Ungheria

Polonia

si

1801 - 1899

Brasile

Argentina

si

1800 - 1899

Cina

Malesia

si

1872 - 1873

Asia

Messico

si

1864 - 1911

Gran Bretagna

Nuova Zelanda

si

1872 - 1873

Francia

Messico

si

1300 - 1499

ignota

Gran Bretagna

si

1300 - 1399

ignota

Romania

si

1831

Germania

USA

si

1850

Brasile

Uruguay

si

1850

Argentina

Uruguay

si

1859

Germania

Sud Africa

si

1861

Asia

Finlandia

probabile

1861

Germania

Finlandia

probabile

1861

Svezia

Finlandia

probabile

1861

Ex URSS

Finlandia

probabile

1872

Gran Bretagna

Australia

si

1875

Germania

Cile

no

1880

USA

Canada

si

1893

Germania

Estonia

probabile

1893

Lituania

Estonia

probabile

1893

Russia

Estonia

probabile

1893

Lettonia

Estonia

probabile

1894

Amu Darya

Morghab, Turkmenistan

si

1897

ignota

Columbia Britannica

si

1898

Ungheria

Brasile

si

1898

USA

Brasile

si

1905

Germania

Giappone

non conosciuta

1910

Sud Africa

Kenya

si

1910

Uganda

Kenya

si

1913

Germania

Tailandia

si

1913

Giappone

Tailandia

si

1913

Cina

Tailandia

si

1914

ignota

Madagascar

si

1914

Germania

Sri Lanka

si

1915

Hong Kong

Filippine

si

1925

Sud Africa

Zimbabwe

si

1925

Francia

Marocco

si

1927

USA

Cuba

si

1927

URSS

Cuba

si

1934

Indonesia

Egitto

si

1936

Nuova Zelanda

Fiji

probabile

1939

Tailandia

India

si

1939

Sri Lanka

India

si

1940

ignota

Venezuela

si

1940

ignota

Colombia

si

1940

Italia

Etiopia

si

1946

Colombia

Bolivia

si

1946

Sud Africa

Zambia

no

1946

Malawi

Zambia

no

1946

Israele

Zambia

no

1946

Brasile

Bolivia

si

1946

Giappone

Perù

si

1946

Cina

Perù

si

1946

Messico

Bolivia

si

1953

Rep. Domenicana

Portorico

no

1953

Messico

Rep. Domenicana

si

1954

ignota

Guatemala

si

1954

Israele

Nigeria

probabile

1954

Austria

Nigeria

probabile

1955

ignota

Iraq

si

1956

India

Nepal

non conosciuta

1956

Nicaragua

Honduras

no

1959

Australia

Papua Nuova Giunea

si

1960

probabilmente India

Bangladesh

si

1960

Israele

Ruanda

si

1962

ignota

Ghana

probabile

1962

Israele

Uganda

si

1964

Messico

Nicaragua

probabile no

1964

Gran Bretagna

Pakistan

si

1964

Tailandia

Pakistan

si

1965

Guatemala

El Salvador

probabile

1965

Francia

Tunisia

probabile

1965

Germania

Tunisia

probabile

1966

Israele

Cipro

si

1966

Israele

Rep. Centro Africana

si

1968

Giappone

Suriname

probabile

1969

Ungheria

Vietnam

si

1970

Israele

Malawi

no

1970

Israele

Camerun

si

1973

Israele

Corea

si

1975

India

Sudan

no

1976

Taiwan

Costa Rica

probabile

1976

Colombia

Panama

si

1976

Israele

Panama

si

1976

Italia

Costa d'Avorio

si

1976

Vietnam

Ungheria

si

1976

USA

Panama

si

1976

India

Mauritius

si

1977

Tailandia

Laos

non conosciuta

1977

India

Laos

non conosciuta

1982

Vietnam

URSS

si

1982

Giappone

Cina

non conosciuta

1983

Nepal

Bhutan

si

1985

Ungheria

Algeria

no

1990

Ungheria

Angola (lago Pangula)

probabile

 

 

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