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Gobione europeo, Gobio gobio (Linnaeus, 1758)


 

Nomi comuni esteri - Francese - Goujon, Gofi, Gouvin, Grougnon, Gressling, Kress, Troga Tragan. Inglese - Gudgeon. Gaelico - Bronnòg. Tedesco - Grundel, Gründelen, Gründling, Grässling, Gressling. Spagna - Gobio. Portogallo - Góbio. Grecia - Gobios, Gyftopsaro. Olanda - Riviergrondel, Grondel. Danimarca - Almindelig grundling, Grundling. Norvegia - Sandkryper, Grundling. Svezia - Sandkrypare. Finlandia - Törö. Russo - Peskar, Peskar' obyknovennyi, Pichkur. Estonia - Rünt, Harilik rünt. Lettonia - Grundulis. Lituania - Gružlys. Polonia - Kielb, Kielb pospolity. Repubblica Ceca - Dřízek, Hříz, Hřízek, Hrouzek obecny, Hrúz obycajny, Řezoun, Řízek obecný, Řízek říční. Slovacchia - Hrúz obycajný. Ungheria - Fenékjáró küllö. Romania - Porcusor. Bulgaria - Krotushka. Croazia - Krkuša. Slovenia - Globocek. Serbia - Govedarka. Repubblica di Macedonia - Cupka. Albania - Barburici, Merenke, Mustaku i lumit, Nje mustakori. Turchia - Derekayasi baligi.

 

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Gobio gobio (Linnaeus, 1758). Systema Nat. ed. 10 v. 1 320. Status: nuova nomenclatura, valida.

Cyprinus gobio Linnaeus, 1758. Systema Nat. ed. 10 v. 1 320. Status: nomenclatura originaria, non valida. Opinioni -  Nomenclatura specifica valida come Gobio gobio (Linnaeus 1758), secondo Berg 1949:640, Coad 1981:10, Lelek 1987:190, Bianco 1988:153, Coad 1995:17, Mrakovcic et al. 1995:184, Naseka 1996:158, Chereshnev 1996:599, Coad 1996:71, Kottelat 1997:60, Reshetnikov et al. 1997:737, Naseka 1998:82, Coad 1998:102, Banarescu et al. 1999:81, Briolay et al. 1998:101, Fricke 1999:23, Coad & Abdoli 2000:56, Naseka 2001:1380, Bogutskaya et al. 2001:44, Tsvetkov et al. 2001:121, Hanel 2003:50, Vasil'eva et al. 2004:772, Doadrio & Madeira 2004:108, Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:63, Vasil'eva et al. 2004:767, Vassilev & Pehlivanov 2005:169, Kottelat & Persat 2005:21, Hanel & Lusk 2005:225, Fricke 2007:28, Fricke et al. 2007:39, Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:92, Mendel et al. 2008:1069, Parin et al. 2014:77, McDowall & Stewart 2015:315, Jelić et al. 2018:116. Catalogo: Wheeler 1985:31. Neotipo designato da Fricke 1999:24, ma ritirato in Fricke 2000:639. Neotipo designato da Kottelat & Persat 2005:219; anche un lectotipo perduto è designato come prioritario per la designazione del neotipo. Località tipo: torrente Sieg a Eitorf, bacino del fiume Reno, Germania. Tipo: NRM 50261.

Gobio gobio gobio (Linnaeus, 1758). Systema Nat. ed. 10 v. 1 320. Status: nuova nomenclatura, non valida.

Leuciscus gobio (Linnaeus, 1758). Systema Nat. ed. 10 v. 1 320. Status: nuova nomenclatura, non valida.

Cobitis fundulus Wulff, 1765. Ichthyologia, cum amphibiis regni Borsussici. Methodo Linnaeana disposita. Regiomonti. Ichthyol. Borsussici i-xii + 1-60; 32. Status: nomenclatura soggetta a discussione, non valida. Opinioni: discutibile come sinonimo di "Gobio gobio" (Linnaeus 1758), secondo Kottelat 1997:60, Kottelat & Persat 2005:213. Località tipo: Prussia.

Gobio fluviatilis Fleming, 1828. A history of British animals, exhibiting the descriptive characters and systematical arrangement of the genera and species of quadrupeds, birds, reptiles, fishes, mollusca, and radiata of the United Kingdom; including the indigenous, extirpated, and extinct kinds, together with periodical and occasional visitants. Edinburgh. Hist. Brit. Animals i-xxiii + 1-565; 186. Status: sinonimo junior, nomenclatura non valida. Opinioni: sinonimo di "Gobio gobio" (Linnaeus 1758), secondo Kottelat 1997:60. Località tipo: Europa. Tipo: non è noto nessun esemplare tipo.

Gobio phoxinoides De la Pylaie, 1835. Recherches, en France, sur les poissons de l'Océan, pendant les années 1832 et 1833. In: Mem. Congr. Sci. France, 2nd Sess., Poitiers, 1834. Rouen. Recherches France 524-534; 533. Status: nomen nudum, nomenclatura non valida. Opinioni: in sinonimia di "Gobio gobio" (Linnaeus 1758), secondo Kottelat 1997:60, Kottelat & Persat 2005:213. provenienza del materiale: torrente Yon ed altri torrenti della Vandea, Francia.

Gobio vulgaris Heckel, 1836. Über einige neue, oder nicht gehörig unterschiedene Cyprinen, nebst einer systematischen Darstellung der europäischen Gattungen dieser Gruppe. Ann. Wien. Mus. Naturges. 219-234: v. 1 (n° 10) Pl. 21. Status: sinonimo junior, nomenclatura non valida. Non disponibile, il nome è presente soltanto nella tavola illustrativa. Opinioni: in sinonimia di "Gobio gobio" (Linnaeus 1758), secondo Kottelat 1997:60, Banarescu et al. 1999:81, Vasil'eva et al. 2004:772, Kottelat & Persat 2005:213.

Gobio saxatilis Koch, 1840. Animalia Vertebrata. Pp. 1-43. In: Koch, A.Herrich-Schäffer and F, Forster. Fauna Ratisbonensis. In: Naturhistorische Topographic v. Regensburg. Fauna Ratisbonensis i-xvi + 1-478; v. 3 40. Status: sinonimo junior, nomenclatura non valida. Nuovo nome non necessario per "Cyprinus gobio" Linnaeus 1758. Opinioni: sinonimo di "Gobio gobio" (Linnaeus 1758), secondo Kottelat 1997:60, Kottelat & Persat 2005:213.

Gobio fluviatilis Cuvier, 1842. In Cuvier & Valenciennes 1842. Hist. Nat. Poiss. v. 16 300 Pl. 481. Status: sinonimo junior, nomenclatura non valida. Opinioni: sinonimo di "Gobio gobio" (Linnaeus 1758), secondo Berg 1949:640, Banarescu et al. 1999:81, Vasil'eva et al. 2004:772, Kottelat & Persat 2005:213. Località tipo: Europa. Tipo: non è noto nessun esemplare tipo.

Bungia nigrescens Keyserling, 1861. Neue Cypriniden aus Persien. Zeitschrift Ges. Naturw. Berlin 1-27; v. 17 19 [22] Pl. 8. Status: nomenclatura soggetta a discussione, non valida. Opinioni: sinonimo di "Gobio gobio" (Linnaeus 1758), secondo Coad 1981:10, Kottelat 1997:60 con riserva, Banarescu et al. 1999:81 con riserva. Località tipo: fiume Harirud a Herat, Afghanistan. Tipo: non fu conservato nessun esemplare tipo.

Gobio fluviatilis cynocephalus (non Dybowski, 1869). Status: errore d'identificazione, nomenclatura non valida. Ancora trattata come valida se si segue Bogutskaya.

Gobio fluviatilis lepidolaemus Kessler, 1872. Ichthyological Fauna of Turkestan. Izv. Imp. Obsh. Lyub. Estestv. Antro. Etno. 47-76; v. 10 (no. 1) 59 [15]. Status: sinonimo junior, nomenclatura non valida. Opinioni: sinonimo di "Gobio gobio" (Linnaeus 1758), ma valida sottospecie come da descrizione, per Berg 1949:647, vedere Coad 1981:10, Coad 1995:17, Reshetnikov et al. 1997:737, Naseka 1998:82; sinonimo di "Gobio gobio" (Linnaeus 1758), secondo Kottelat 1997:60, Banarescu et al. 1999:81; nomenclatura valida come "Gobio lepidolaemus" Kessler 1872, per Vasil'eva et al. 2004:767. Catalogo: Svetovidova 1978:257 e 262 con ZISP 2078 (p. 257) e 2076 (p. 262) come olotipo. Località tipo: bacino del fiume Zeravshan, Uzbekistan; fiume Syr Darya a Khodzhent [Leninabad], Tajikistan. Tipo: nessuno: Sintipi: (circa 50) BMNH 1897.7.5.26 [ex MLSU] (1) Khodzhent, ZIN 2076 [or 2706] (25), ?ZMMU P-1052 (1).

Gobio gobio lepidolaemus Kessler, 1872. Status: nuova nomenclatura per "Gobio fluviatilis lepidolaemus" Kessler, 1872, vedere sopra.

Gobio lepidolaemus Kessler, 1872. Status: nuova nomenclatura per "Gobio fluviatilis lepidolaemus" Kessler, 1872, vedere sopra.

Gobio lepidolaemus caucasica Kamensky, 1901. Die Cypriniden der Kaukasusländer und ihrer angrenzenden Meere. 2. Liefrung. Tiflis. Cyprinids Caucas. 2 i-ii + i-ii + 1-192; 2 6. Status: sinonimo junior, nomenclatura non valida. In competizione per l'uso con "Gobio uranoscopus" var. "caucasica" Kamensky 1901. Opinioni: sinonimo di "Gobio gobio" (Linnaeus 1758), ma valida sottospecie come da descrizione, per Lelek 1987:190; sinonimo di "Gobio gobio" (Linnaeus 1758), secondo Berg 1949:649, Kottelat 1997:60, Naseka 1998:82, Banarescu et al. 1999:81. Località tipo: fiumi Podkumok e Sulake, nord Caucaso, Russia; bacino del fiume Rioni, Georgia. Tipo: nessuno: Sintipi: ?BMNH 1897.7.5.26 (1), ?ZMT 130c, nessuno a ZIN.

Gobio latus Anikin, 1905. Description of new fish species from Asia. Izvestiya Tomskogo Universiteta. New Fish from Asia 1-18; 1. Status: sinonimo junior, nomenclatura non valida. Opinioni: sinonimo di "Gobio gobio" (Linnaeus 1758), ma valida sottospecie, per Berg 1949:647; sinonimo di "Gobio gobio" (Linnaeus 1758), per Kottelat 1997:60. Località tipo: lago Issyk-Kul alla foce del fiume Ulachol, Kyrgyzstan. Tipo: nessuno: Sintipi: (3) collocazione attuale ignota.

Gobio gobio katopyga Berg, 1914. Faune Russie Pays Limitropes 446.Status: nomenclatura infrasubspecifica (morpha), non disponibile, non valida. Opinioni: in sinonimia di "Gobio gobio" (Linnaeus 1758), secondo Kottelat 1997:61. Originale non visionato.

Gobio gobio longicirris Berg, 1914. Faune Russie Pays Limitropes 442. Status: nomenclatura infrasubspecifica (morpha), non disponibile, non valida. Opinioni: in sinonimia di "Gobio gobio" (Linnaeus 1758), secondo Kottelat 1997:61. Originale non visionato.

Gobio gobio prosopyga Berg, 1914. Faune Russie Pays Limitropes 442. Status: nomenclatura infrasubspecifica (morpha), non disponibile, non valida. Opinioni: in sinonimia di "Gobio gobio" (Linnaeus 1758), secondo Kottelat 1997:61. Originale non visionato.

Gobio gobio sibiricus Nikolsky, 1936. Sur la variabilité géographique de "Gobio gobio" (L.) du nord-est de Kazachstan et de la Sibérie occidentale. Trav. Inst. Zool. Acad. Sci. U.R.S.S. 457-473; n° 3 470 Fig. 1b. Status: sinonimo junior, nomenclatura non valida. Opinioni: sinonimo di "Gobio gobio" (Linnaeus 1758), secondo Kottelat 1997:61; sinonimo di "Gobio gobio" (Linnaeus 1758), sottospecie "cynocephalus" Dybowski 1877, per Berg 1949:643, Naseka 1998:82, Sideleva 2001:52, Sideleva 2003:10. Catalogo: Vasil'eva et al. 2001:21-21. Località tipo: corso superiore dei bacini dei fiumi Yenisey e Ob, Siberia, Russia; fiume Nura, Kazakhstan. Tipo: nessuno: Sintipi: (55) ZMMU P-1593 (31), P-1626 (17).

Gobio gobio acutipinnatus (non Menschikov, 1939). Status: errode d'identificazione, nomenclatura non valida.

Gobio gobio microlepidotus Battalgil, 1942. Türkiye tatli su baliklari hakkinda. Contribution à la connaissance des poissons des eaux douces de la Turquie. Rev. Fac. Sci. Univ. Istanbul (Sér. B: Sci. Nat.) 287-306; v. 7 (no. 4) 294 Fig. 5. Status: sinonimo junior, nomenclatura non valida. Opinioni: sinonimo di "Gobio gobio" (Linnaeus 1758), secondo Kottelat 1997:61. Catalogo: Wilkens 1977:158. Località tipo: lago Beysehir, Anatolia, Turchia. Tipo: nessuno: Sintipi: ZMH H1127 (2).

Gobio gobio intermedius Battalgil, 1944. Tüukiye'de yeni tatli su baliklari. Nouveau poissons des eaux douces de la Turquie. Rev. Fac. Sci. Univ. Istanbul (Sér. B: Sci. Nat.) 126-133; v. 9 (no. 2) 130 Fig. 3. Status: sinonimo junior, nomenclatura non valida. Opinioni: sinonimo di "Gobio gobio" (Linnaeus 1758), secondo Kottelat 1997:61. Catalogo: Wilkens 1977:158. Località tipo: lago Eber, Vilâyet Afyon Karahisar, Turchia. Tipo: nessuno: Sintipi: ZMH H1128 (1), H1135 (1).

Gobio gobio muresia Jaszfalusi, 1951. Die endemischen "Cobitis"- und "Gobio" - Arten der Tisza, sowie ihrer Nebenflüsse. Országos Term. Múz. Évkönyve 113-125; v. 1 119 Fig. 2, Pl. 1 (fig. 5). Status: sinonimo junior, nomenclatura non valida. Opinioni: sinonimo di "Gobio gobio" (Linnaeus 1758), secondo Kottelat 1997:61 [ref. 22952], Banarescu et al. 1999:82. località tipo: fiume Maros vicino a Gödemesterháza, ed alla confluenza con i torrenti Zebrak eGöde, bacino del fiume Tisza, Ungheria. Tipo: nessuno: Sintipi: collocazione attuale ignota.

Gobio gobio lepidolaemus lindbergi Turdakov & Piskarev, 1955. Chu River gudgeon. Trudy Inst. Zool. Paras. Kyrgyzstan 83-91; v. 3 89. Status: nomenclatura infrasubspecifica, nome non disponibile (ICZN), non valida. Opinioni: in sinonimia di "Gobio gobio" (Linnaeus 1758), secondo Kottelat 1997:61. Provenienza del materiale: fiume Chu, Kyrgyzstan.

Gobio gobio nikolskyi Turdakov & Piskarev, 1955. Trudy Inst. Zool. Parazitol. Kirgiz. v. 3 89. Status: sinonimo junior, nomenclatura non valida. Basata su fonti letterarie. Opinioni: sinonimo di "Gobio gobio" (Linnaeus 1758), secondo Kottelat 1997:61. Località tipo: fiume Amu-Darya, probabilmente anche fiumi Zeravshan e Kashka Darya, Uzbekistan. Tipo: non è noto nessun esemplare tipo.

Gobio gobio gymnostethus Ladiges, 1960. Süsswasserfische der Türkei, I. Teil Cyprinidae. Mitt. Hamb. Zool. Mus. Inst. 105-150; v. 58 137 Fig. 9. Status: sinonimo junior, nomenclatura non valida. Opinioni: sinonimo di "Gobio gobio" (Linnaeus 1758), secondo Kottelat 1997:61. Catalogo: Wilkens 1977:157. Località tipo: torrente Kizilcak, Nigde, Turchia. Tipo: ZMH H1131. Paratipi: ZMH H1154 (1).

Gobio gobio insuyanus Ladiges, 1960. Mitt. Hamb. Zool. Mus. Inst. v. 58 136 Fig. 8. Status: sinonimo junior, nomenclatura non valida. Opinioni: sinonimo di "Gobio gobio" (Linnaeus 1758), secondo Kottelat 1997:61. Catalogo: Wilkens 1977:157. Località tipo: torrente Insuyu, Cihanbeyli, Turchia. Tipo: ZMH H1133.

Gobio gobio albanicus Oliva, 1961. Bemerkungen Über einige Fischarten aus Albanien. Vestn. Ceskosl. Zool. Spolec. 39-54; v. 25 42 Pl. 2 (fig. 3). Status: sinonimo junior, nomenclatura non valida. Opinioni: sinonimo di "Gobio gobio" (Linnaeus 1758), ma valida sottospecie, per Lelek 1987:190; sinonimo di "Gobio gobio" (Linnaeus 1758), secondo Kottelat 1997:61, Banarescu et al. 1999:82. Originale non visionato. Località tipo: fiume Kiri, Albania. Tipo: CUP 30408.

Gobio gobio magnicapitata Gundrizer, 1967. K Izuchenyu ryb Tuvy. Uchenye Zapisky Tomskogo Univ.; n° 53 69. Status: nomenclatura soggetta a discussione, non valida. Opinioni: discutibile come sinonimo di "Gobio gobio" (Linnaeus 1758), secondo Kottelat 1997:61. Località tipo: lago Kara-khol, Kharnusovoe, Khamsari, Tadzhikistan.

Gobio gobio balcanicus Dimovski & Grupche, 1977. Etudes morphologica-systematiques du genre "Gobio" (Pisces, Cyprinidae) en Macedoine. 4. "Gobio gobio balcanicus" n. ssp. de la rivière Vardar. Godisen Zb. Biol. Fak. Univ. Kiril Metodij 79-106; v. 30 95 Fig. 1. Status: sinonimo junior, nomenclatura non valida. Opinioni: sinonimo di "Gobio gobio" (Linnaeus 1758), secondo Kottelat 1997:61, Banarescu et al. 1999:82. Località tipo: fiume Vardar ed affluenti, ex Jugoslavia. Tipo: nessuno: Sintipi: ?MMNHS (100).

 

 

Note sulla sistematicaG. gobio costituisce una specie politipica, distinta in molte sottospecie. Recentemente sono state effettuate molte revisioni sulla posizione sistematica di molte sottospecie, considerate buone specie, sulla base di studi effettuati a livello molecolare e morfologico. Da tali studi è definitivamente emerso che le popolazioni italiane sono in realtà una buona specie: G. benacensis. Analogamente altre popolazioni europee si stanno rivelando altrettante nuove specie, per molte siamo in attesa degli sviluppi degli studi in corso.

 

 

Fonti bibliografiche principali - Muus, B.J. and P. Dahlström, 1968. Süßwasserfische.. BLV Verlagsgesellschaft, München. 224 p. Pagina 112.

 

 

Distribuzione di Gobio gobio secondo IUCN

 

L'area di diffusione originaria della specie comprende gran parte dell'Europa centro settentrionale e nord orientale. L'areale interessa il bacino della Loira, i fiumi dell'Inghilterra, della Cornovaglia e quelli francesi afferenti al canale della Manica, i bacini afferenti al Mare del Nord ed al Mar Baltico Centrale e meridionale, il Bacino del Rodano e quelli del  Volga, del Danubio superiore, dei bacini medio e superiore del Dniestr e del Dniepr, e la Finlandia meridionale. La specie è presente nei bacini di fiumi afferenti al Mar Bianco ed al Mare di Barents (Onega, Dvina, Mezen e Pechora) ed in Kazakhstan, ma i confini orientali della distribuzione non sono ben chiari.

 

Introduzioni di Gobio gobio
Periodo Provenienza Paese ospite Acclimatazione

prima del XVIII sec.

Inghilterra

Irlanda

si

non conosciuto

ignota

Italia

si

non conosciuto

ignota

Norvegia

si

non conosciuto

ignota

Spagna

si

1896

ignota

Portogallo

si

1935

Francia

Marocco

si

 

 

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