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Carpa argentata, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (Valenciennes, 1844)


 

Note sul nome italiano - In Italia la specie è regolarmente confusa dai pescatori con Hypophthalmichthys nobilis e chiamata "temolo russo". Superfluo dire che la carpa argentata non è un timallino. A causa di questa confusione non è sempre possibile fare riferimento alle segnalazioni di "carpe cinesi' pubblicate sulle riviste di pesca sportiva.

 

 

Nomi comuni esteri - Spagna - Carpa plateada. Portogallo - Carpa prateada. Francese - Amour argenté, Carpe argentée, Carpe asiatique, Carpe chinoise. Grecia - Asimokyprinos. Inglese - Silver carp, Chinese schemer. Tedesco - Silberkarpfen, Tolstolob. Olanda - Zilverkarper. Afrikaans - Silwerkarp. Danimarca - Sølvkarpe. Svezia - Silverkarp. Norvegia - Sølvkarpe. Finlandia - Hopeapaksuotsa. Russo - Tolpyga, Belyi tolstolob, Tovstolob zvychajnyi, Belyi tolstolobik, Tolstolobik. Estonia - Harilik pakslaup. Polonia - Tolpyga biala. Repubblica Ceca - Tolstolobik biely, Tolstolobik bily, Tolstolobik obecný. Slovacchia - Tolstolob biely. Ungheria - Fehér busa. Romania - Crap argintiu, Crap-chinezesc-argintiu, Sânger. Bulgaria - Byal tolstolob. Albania - Ballgjeri i bardhe. Israele - Kasaf. Giappone - Hakuren. Cina - Bin ue, Cho ue, Lin ue. India - Belli-gende. Malesia - Kap perak, Tongsan putih. Filippine - Babangan. Tailandia - Pla leng hea, Pla lin, Pla pea long, Pla pin hea, Pla leng heu. Iran - Fytofag, Kopur Noqreai, Phytophague.

 

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Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (Valenciennes, 1844). In Cuvier & Valenciennes. Hist. Nat. Poiss. v. 17 360. Sinonimo senior, nuova combinazione, nomenclatura ICZN valida.

Leuciscus molitrix Valenciennes, 1844. In Cuvier & Valenciennes. Histoire naturelle des poissons. Tome dix-septième. Suite du livre dix-huitième. Cyprinoïdes. Hist. Nat. Poiss. i-xxiii + 1-497 + 2 pp.; v. 17 360. Sinonimo senior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Nomenclatura valida come Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (Valenciennes 1844), secondo Berg 1949:846, Okada 1961:740 (scritto "moritrix"), Yang 1964:225, Mai 1978:174, Coad 1981:10, Sawada in Masuda et al. 1984:58, Wang 1984:72, Chen in Kuang et al. 1986:58 (come autori Cuvier & Valenciennes), Ortega & Vari 1986:6, Robison & Buchanan 1988:190, Chen & Li in Chu & Chen 1989:100, Paulin et al. 1989:81, Kawanabe & Mizuno 1989:290, Zheng et al. 1989:117, Coad 1991:17, Pethiyagoda 1991:81, Talwar & Jhingran 1991:330, Liu in Pan et al. 1991:236, Boschung 1992:50, Etnier & Starnes 1993:179, Kottelat et al. 1993:35, Skelton 1993:191, Zhuo in Ding 1994:170, Yang & Chen 1995:46, Coad 1995:18, Zhu 1995:101, Bogutskaya & Naseka 1996:15, Coad 1996:84, Cheng & Zhou 1997:193, Kim 1997:510, Reshetnikov et al. 1997:738, Chen in Chen 1998:128, Bogutskaya 1998:61, Chen in Chen et al. 1998:228, Garcia Romero et al. 1998:189, Fricke 1999:84, Rema Devi & Raghunathan 1999:171, Fuller et al. 1999:81, Nakabo 2000:261, Rafique 2000:324, Azeroual et al. 2000:20, Tang et al. 2001:14, Sheiko & Fedorov 2000:17, Matsuura et al. 2000:92, Kottelat 2001:28, Gabrielyan 2001:27, Ross et al. 2001:160, Bogutskaya et al. 2001:43, Wang et al. 2001:114, Skelton 2001:191, Kim & Park 2002:158, Nakabo 2002:261, Youn 2002:157, 512, Mirza 2003:12, López et al. 2003:9, Hanel 2003:54, Nelson et al. 2004:72, Boschung & Mayden 2004:189, Menni 2004:71, Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:82, Vassilev & Pehlivanov 2005:169, Hanel & Lusk 2005:276, Kottelat 2006:36, Scharpf 2005:21 scritto molitris, Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:194, Shestha 2008:89, Bogutskaya et al. 2008:331, Ninua & Japoshvili 2008:166, Minckley & Marsh 2009:181, Matamoros et al. 2009:8, Esmaeili et al. 2010:370, Page & Burr 2011:153, Barriga S. 2012:104, Page et al. 2013:72, Gurung et al. 2013:4882, Kottelat 2013:112, Parin et al. 2014:80, Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2015:873, McDowall & Stewart 2015:316, Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:72, Barbieri et al. 2015:53, Mirande & Koerber 2015:10, Çiçek et al. 2015:145, Zhang et al. 2016:66, Bertaco et al. 2016:435, Dyldin & Orlov 2016:661, Nión et al. 2016:26, Esmaeili et al. 2017:50. Località tipo: Cina. Tipo: non è noto nessun esemplare tipo.

Hypothalmichthys molitrix (Valenciennes, 1844). In Cuvier & Valenciennes. Hist. Nat. Poiss. v. 17 360. Errore ortografico, nuova combinazione, nomenclatura ICZN non valida.

Hypothamicthys molitrix (Valenciennes, 1844). In Cuvier & Valenciennes. Hist. Nat. Poiss. v. 17 360. Errore ortografico, nuova combinazione, nomenclatura ICZN non valida.

Cephalus mantschuricus Basilewsky, 1855. Ichthyographia Chinae Borealis. Nouv. Mém. Soc. Imp. Natur. Moscou 215-263; v. 10 235 Pl. 7 (fig. 3). Scritto "mandschuricus" in Kner 1867:350. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Valenciennes 1844, secondo Yang 1964:225, Bogutskaya & Naseka 1996:16, Bogutskaya 1998:61, Chen in Chen et al. 1998:228. Località tipo: Beijing (Pechino), Manciuria e Mongolia, Cina. Tipo: nessun tipo della specie è stato ritrovalto allo ZIN.

Onychodon mantschuricus (Basilewsky, 1855). Nouv. Mém. Soc. Imp. Natur. Moscou v. 10 235 Pl. 7 (fig. 3). Sinonimo junior, nuova combinazione per Cephalus mantschuricus Basilewsky 1855, nomenclatura ICZN non valida.

Abramocephalus microlepis Steindachner, 1869. Eine Abhandlung über einige neue Fischarten aus den Sammlungen des Wiener-Museums. Anz. Akad. Wiss. Wien 149-150; v. 6 (n° 19) 150. Descritto più dettagliatamente in Steindachner 1870:30. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Valenciennes 1844, secondo Yang 1964:225, Chen in Chen et al. 1998:229. Località tipo: Cina. Tipo: NMW 46326.

Hypophthalmichthys dabry Guichenot, 1871. In Bleeker. Mémoire sur les cyprinoïdes de Chine. Verh. Akad. Amsterdam 1-91; v. 12 84. Nome museale citato in sinonimia di Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, non disponibile, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Possibile convalida se citato come Bleeker 1878. Opinioni: - In sinonimia di Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (Valenciennes 1844), secondo Berg 1949:846, Kottelat 2006:36.

Hypophthalmichthys dybowskii Herzenstein, 1888. In Warpachowski & Herzenstein. Remarks on the ichthyology of the River Amur Basin and adjacent countries. Trudy St. Petersburg. Obsh. Estestv. 1-58; v. 19 (n° 8)(for 1887) 38. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Valenciennes 1844, secondo Berg 1949:846, Bogutskaya & Naseka 1996:16, Bogutskaya 1998:62. Località tipo: fiume Amur, Russia; Fuchow, Cina. Tipo: nessuno. Sintipi: ZIN 5510 (1), 5576 [non 5575] (1), 7043 [non 7103] (1).

Leuciscus hypophthalmus Richardson, 1945. Ex Gray. Ichthyology. Part 3. In R. B. Hinds (ed.) The zoology of the voyage of H. M. S. Sulphur, under the command of Captain Sir Edward Belcher, R. N., C. B., F. R. G. S., etc., during the years 1836-42, n° 10. London: Smith, Elder & Co. Ichthy. Voyage Sulphur 3 99-150; 139 Pl. 63 (fig. 1). Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Valenciennes 1844, secondo Yang 1964:225, Chen in Kuang et al. 1986:58, Zheng et al. 1989:117, Liu in Pan et al. 1991:237, Chen in Chen et al. 1998:228. Località tipo: Canton, Cina. Tipo: BMNH non catalogato (impagliato).

 

 

Fonti bibliografiche principali - Kottelat M. and J. Freyhof 2007. Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Kottelat, Cornol, Switzerland and Freyhof, Berlin, Germany. Pagina 194 - 195.

 

 

Distribuzione europea di Hypophthalmichthys molitrix

 

 

Specie originaria dei maggiori bacini dell'Asia orientale afferenti all'Oceano Pacifico, dal fiume Amur allo Xi Jiang. In Europa è stata largamente introdotta, in particolare in Europa orientale. In Italia fu introdotta inizialmente in piccoli specchi d'acqua utilizzati per la pesca sportiva, in seguito la specie è comparsa in acque libere, soprattutto nel bacino del fiume Po. Pochi anni or sono due soggetti di oltre 20 kg sono stati catturati con rete a circuizione nelle acque litorali della porzione sud orientale del lago Maggiore. Recentemente sono comparsi immaturi nel delta del fiume Po, non sappiamo se originati da riproduzione naturale o provenienti da allevamenti ittici. Probabilmente, in seguito alle variazioni di regime conseguenti alle modificazioni del clima, la specie risulta acclimatata in Italia nel tratto terminale del fiume Po e nel suo delta (Milardi et al., 2017).

 

 

Introduzioni di Hypophthalmichthys molitrix

Periodo Provenienza Paese ospite Acclimatazione

prima del XVIII sec.

Cina

Taiwan

no

non conosciuto

ignota

Laos

probabile

non conosciuto

ignota

Italia

si

non conosciuto

ignota

Iran

no

non conosciuto

ignota

Danimarca

probabile no

non conosciuto

ignota

Repubblica Ceca

si

non conosciuto

ignota

Bulgaria

no

non conosciuto

Estremo oriente

Armenia

probabile

non conosciuto

ignota

Austria

no

non conosciuto

ignota

Argentina

non conosciuta

non conosciuto

ignota

Albania

probabile no

non conosciuto

ignota

Afghanistan

si

non conosciuto

ignota

Lettonia

si

non conosciuto

ignota

Moldova

non conosciuta

non conosciuto

ignota

Papua Nuova Guinea

non conosciuta

non conosciuto

ignota

USA

probabile

non conosciuto

ignota

Gran Bretagna

probabile no

non conosciuto

ignota

Ucraina

non conosciuta

non conosciuto

ignota

Svezia

probabile no

non conosciuto

ignota

Slovacchia

si

non conosciuto

Cina

Singapore

no

non conosciuto

ignota

Federazione Russa

probabile no

non conosciuto

ignota

Jamaica

non conosciuta

1958 - 1961

Bacino del fiume Yangtze

Turkmenistan

si

1958 - 1959

Cina

Kazakhstan

si

1966 - 1969

ignota

Iraq

si

1960 - 1962

Cina

Romania

si

1982 - 1983

Nepal

Pakistan

si

1980 - 1989

Russia

Estonia

no

1982 - 1983

Cina

Pakistan

si

1800 - 1899

Cina

Malesia

no

1878 - 1940

Cina

Giappone

si

1913

Cina

Tailandia

no

1948

Cina

Sri Lanka

no

1950

Asia

Francia

probabile no

1953

ignota

URSS

si

1958

Cina

Vietnam

si

1959

Giappone

India

probabile

1959

Hong Kong

India

probabile

1960

Ignota

Uzbekistan

si

1962

Giappone

Egitto

no

1963

Giappone

Corea

probabile no

1963

URSS

Serbia

si

1963

Romania

Serbia

si

1963

Ungheria

Serbia

si

1963

Cina

Ungheria

si

1963

Russia

Ungheria

si

1964

URSS

Polonia

probabile no

1964

Cina

Filippine

no

1964

Giappone

Indonesia

no

1964

Cina

Germania

probabile no

1964

Cina

Indonesia

no

1964

Ungheria

Germania

probabile no

1964

Taiwan

Filippine

no

1965

India

Nepal

no

1965

Cina meridionale

Messico

probabile no

1966

Giappone

Israele

no

1966

Ungheria

Olanda

probabile no

1966

Giappone

Fiume Giordano

no

1967

URSS

Cuba

probabile no

1967

Giappone

Nepal

non conosciuta

1968

Cina

Brasile

probabile no

1968

Ungheria

Brasile

probabile no

1968

Giappone

Brasile

probabile no

1968

Malesia

Fiji

probabile no

1969

Hong Kong

Bangladesh

probabile no

1969

Hong Kong

Nuova Zelanda

probabile no

1970

Israele

Malawi

no

1970

ignota

Svizzera

no

1972

USA

Portorico

probabile

1974

Taiwan

Guam

non conosciuta

1975

Giappone

Etiopia

probabile no

1975

Israele

Sud Africa

probabile no

1975

Jugoslavia

Belgio

probabile no

1976

India

Mauritius

non conosciuta

1976

Israele

Cipro

si

1976

Taiwan

Costa Rica

probabile no

1976

Taiwan

Honduras

probabile no

1978

Taiwan

Panama

probabile no

1979

Panama

Peru

probabile no

1979

Corea

Ruanda

probabile no

1980

Bulgaria

Marocco

probabile

1980

Polonia

Grecia

probabile

1981

Ungheria

Tunisia

probabile no

1981

Ungheria

Marocco

probabile

1981

Taiwan

Repubblica Domenicana

probabile

1982

Corea del nord

Madagascar

no

1984

ignota

Bhutan

probabile

1985

Ungheria

Algeria

probabile no

1988

Taiwan

Colombia

non conosciuta

1991

Cuba

Mozambico

no

 

 

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