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Carpa macrocefala,

Hypophthalmichthys nobilis (Richardson, 1845)


 

Note sul nome italiano - In Italia la specie è regolarmente dai pescatori con Hypophthalmichthys molitrix e chiamata "temolo russo". Superfluo dire che la carpa argentata non è un timallino. A causa di questa confusione non è sempre possibile fare riferimento alle segnalazioni di "carpe cinesi' pubblicate sulle riviste di pesca sportiva.

 

 

Nomi comuni esteri - Spagna - Carpa cabezona, Carpa cabeza grande. Francese - Carpe à grosse tête, Carpe marbrée, Amour à grosse tête, Amour marbré, Carpe chinoise. Grecia - Marmarokyprinos. Inglese - Bighead carp, Big head. Tedesco - Gefleckter Silberkarpfen, Marmorkarpfen. Olanda - Grootkopkarper. Danimarca - Marmorkarpe. Svezia - Marmorkarp. Finlandia - Marmoripaksuotsa. Russo - Pestryi tolstolob, Piestryi tolstolobik, Tovstolob strokatyi. Estonia - Jämepea, Kirju pakslaup. Lettonia - Raibais platbieris. Lituania - Margasis placiakaktis. Polonia - Tolpyga pstra. Repubblica Ceca - Tolstolebec pestrý, Tolstolobec pestrý, Tolstolobik pestrý. Slovacchia - Tolstolob pestrý. Romania - Crap argintiu nobil, Novac. Bulgaria - Pastar tolstolob. Albania - Ballgjeri laraman. Cina - Sung ue, Hak lin, Fa lin, Dai tau, Boon tau ue. Giappone - Kokuren. Vietnam - Cá Mè hoa. India - Belli-gende. Malesia - Kap kepala besar, Tongsan. Tailandia - Pla song hea, Pla tao teo, Pla song heu. Iran - Kapoor-e-Sargondeh.

 

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Hypophthalmichthys nobilis (Richardson, 1845). Ex Gray. Ichthy. Voyage Sulphur 3 140 Pl. 63 (fig. 3). Sinonimo senior, nuova combinazione, nomenclatura ICZN valida.

Leuciscus nobilis Richardson, 1845. Ex Gray. Ichthyology.--Part 3. In R. B. Hinds (ed.) The zoology of the voyage of H. M. S. Sulphur, under the command of Captain Sir Edward Belcher, R. N., C. B., F. R. G. S., etc., during the years 1836-42, No. 10. London: Smith, Elder & Co. Ichthy. Voyage Sulphur 3 99-150; 140 Pl. 63 (fig. 3). Sinonimo senior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Nomenclatura specifica valida come Aristichthys nobilis (Richardson 1845), secondo Yang 1964:223, Sawada in Masuda et al. 1984:58, Wang 1984:73, Chen in Kuang et al. 1986:56 (data 1844), Ortega & Vari 1986:6, Chen & Li in Chu & Chen 1989:98, Zheng et al. 1989:116, Liu in Pan et al. 1991:235, Pethiyagoda 1991:57, Zhuo in Ding 1994:168, Yang & Chen 1995:23, Zhu 1995:101, Bogutskaya & Naseka 1996:15, Coad 1996:84, Cheng & Zhou 1997:192, Kim 1997:511, Reshetnikov et al. 1997:735, Vu & Nguyen 1997:26, Chen in Chen 1998:127, Bogutskaya 1998:57, Chen in Chen et al. 1998:226, Nakabo 2000:261, Rafique 2000:324, Azeroual et al. 2000:20, Matsuura et al. 2000:58, Tang et al. 2001:14, Wang et al. 2001:113 (data 1844), Kim & Park 2002:159, Youn 2002:156, 512, Hanel 2003:54, Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:81, Vassilev & Pehlivanov 2005:166 (datato 1846), Hanel & Lusk 2005:273, Ninua & Japoshvili 2008:166, Zhang et al. 2016:66. Nomenclatura valida come Hypophthalmichthys nobilis (Richardson 1845), secondo Okada 1961:740, Robison & Buchanan 1988:192, Kawanabe & Mizuno 1989:288, Talwar & Jhingran 1991:332, Boschung 1992:50, Etnier & Starnes 1993:180, Kottelat et al. 1993:35, Cross & Collins 1995:69, Coad 1995:18, Scott & Crossman 1998:viii, Fuller et al. 1999:82, Gabrielyan 2001:26, Kottelat 2001:28, Kottelat 2001:54, Ross et al. 2001:162, Nakabo 2002:261, Skelton 2002:172, Mirza 2003:12, Nelson et al. 2004:72, Boschung & Mayden 2004:190, Scharpf 2005:21, Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:195, Shestha 2008:90, Almirón et al. 2009:1, Minckley & Marsh 2009:182, Esmaeili et al. 2010:370, Koerber 2011:1, Page & Burr 2011:154, Barriga S. 2012:104, Page et al. 2013:7, Gurung et al. 2013:4882, Kottelat 2013:112, Parin et al. 2014:80, Koerber 2014:1, Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2015:873, Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:74, Barbieri et al. 2015:53, Mirande & Koerber 2015:10, Bertaco et al. 2016:435, Semenchenko et al. 2016:186, Nión et al. 2016:26, Esmaeili et al. 2017:50, Esmaeili et al. 2018:30. Informazioni sull'esemplare tipo: Whitehead 1970:210. Località tipo: Canton, Cina. Tipo: BMNH 1968.3.11.4.

Aristichthys nobilis (Richardson, 1845). Ex Gray. Ichthy. Voyage Sulphur 3 140 Pl. 63 (fig. 3). Sinonimo senior, nuova combinazione, nomenclatura ICZN non valida.

 

 

Fonti bibliografiche principali - Kottelat M. and J. Freyhof 2007. Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Kottelat, Cornol, Switzerland and Freyhof, Berlin, Germany. Pagina 195-196.

 

 

Distribuzione europea di Hypophthalmichthys nobilis

 

 

La specie è originaria della Cina nord orientale e della Siberia sud orientale. In Europa è stata introdotta un po' ovunque, in particolare nell'Europa orientale. In Italia è stata introdotta in piccoli specchi d'acqua utilizzati per la pesca sportiva e , in qualche caso, come controllo biologico di eccessivo sviluppo di alghe planctoniche, la specie è stata poi rinvenuta in alcuni corpi d'acqua naturali, soprattutto nella pianura Padana. Probabilmente, in seguito alle variazioni di regime conseguenti alle modificazioni del clima, la specie risulta acclimatata in Italia nel tratto terminale del fiume Po e nel suo delta (Milardi et al., 2017).

 

 

Introduzioni di Aristichthys nobilis
Periodo Provenienza Paese ospite Acclimatazione

dal 1975 al presente

Europa dell'est

Italia

si

prima del XVIII sec.

Cina

Taiwan

no

non conosciuto

ignota

Danimarca

si

non conosciuto

ignota

Repubblica Ceca

probabile

non conosciuto

ignota

Canada

non conosciuta

non conosciuto

ignota

Cambogia

probabile

non conosciuto

ignota

Birmania

non conosciuta

non conosciuto

ignota

Bulgaria

probabile

non conosciuto

ignota

Brunei

non conosciuta

non conosciuto

Uzbekistan

Armenia

si

non conosciuto

Russia

Armenia

si

non conosciuto

Moldova

Armenia

si

non conosciuto

ignota

Austria

no

non conosciuto

ignota

Albania

probabile

non conosciuto

ignota

Grecia

probabile no

non conosciuto

ignota

Guam

non conosciuta

non conosciuto

ignota

Ucraina

non conosciuta

non conosciuto

Fiume Yangtze

Turkmenistan

si

non conosciuto

ignota

Svezia

probabile

non conosciuto

ignota

Slovacchia

probabile

non conosciuto

Cina

Singapore

no

non conosciuto

ignota

Russia

si

non conosciuto

ignota

Iran

si

non conosciuto

Cina

Pakistan

non conosciuta

non conosciuto

Cina

Hong Kong

non conosciuta

non conosciuto

ignota

Laos

si

non conosciuto

ignota

Lettonia

non conosciuta

1970 - 1979

ignota

Argentina

non conosciuta

1960 - 1962

Cina

Romania

si

1960 - 1969

Fiume Yangtze

Balykchi fish farm

si

1966 - 1969

ignota

Iraq

si

1990 - 1991

Israele

Bolivia

no

1878 - 1940

Cina

Giappone

si

1800 - 1899

Cina

Malesia

no

1932

Cina

Tailandia

probabile no

1948

Cina

Sri Lanka

no

1954

ignota

URSS

probabile

1958

Cina

Vietnam

probabile

1963

Ungheria

Jugoslavia

no

1963

Taiwan

Corea

no

1963

URSS

Ungheria

probabile no

1963

Cina

Ungheria

probabile no

1963

Romania

Jugoslavia

no

1963

URSS

Jugoslavia

no

1964

Ungheria

Germania

no

1965

URSS

Polonia

probabile

1968

Taiwan

Filippine

probabile

1968

Malesia

Fiji

no

1968

URSS

Cuba

no

1969

Taiwan

Indonesia

si

1970

ignota

Svizzera

no

1971

Ungheria

Nepal

no

1973

Germania

Israele

probabile no

1973

Germania

Giordania

no

1975

Asia

Francia

no

1975

Cina

Egitto

no

1975

Cuba

Messico

probabile

1976

Taiwan

Costarica

no

1978

Taiwan

Panama

no

1979

Israele

Peru

no

1979

Panama

Peru

no

1979

Cina

Brasile

no

1981

Taiwan

Repubblica Domenicana

no

1981

Nepal

Bangladesh

non conosciuta

1981

Ungheria

Marocco

non conosciuta

1983

Ungheria

Brasile

no

1983

Nepal

Bhutan

non conosciuta

1983

Germania ovest

Olanda

probabile

1985

Ungheria

Algeria

probabile no

1986

Asia

USA

si

1987

Bangladesh

India

probabile no

1987

Giappone

India

probabile no

1988

Taiwan

Colombia

no

1991

Cuba

Mozambico

no

 

 

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