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Webmuseum Osteichthyes Cypriniformes Leuciscidae Leuciscus

Ido, Leuciscus idus (Linnaeus, 1758)


 

Nomi comuni esteri - Spagna - Cachoelo, Cachuelo. Portogallo - Escalo-prateado, Escalo. Grecia - Leukiskos-tsiróni. Francese - Ide, Ide dorée, Ide mélanote, Ide rouge, Orfe, Véron. Inglese - Ide, Golden orfe, Orfe, Silver orfe. Gaelico - Orff. Tedesco - Aland, Ahlander, Alant, Elize, Elsrode, Elte, Ertel, Alat, Gängling, Gäse, Gänzling, Gendling, Genge, Gesenitz, Gisitzer, Göhe, Goldfisch unechter, Goldnerfling, Goldorfe, Göse, Häwt, Helm, Nerfling, Jase, Jesen, Jesenitz, Juntling, Kilps, Kühling, Lachsapparre, Mähne, Münne, Nennen, Nerfling, Orfe, Rohrkarpfen, Rotorfe, Schwarznerfling, Seekarpen, Stromkarpfen, Tabarre, Tabelle, Tapar, Topar, Urf, Urs. Olanda - Winde, Windvoorn. Danimarca - Almindelig Rimte, Ejbygedde, Emde, Rimte, Strandkarpe. Svezia - Id. Norvegia - Vederbuk. Finlandia - Säyne. Federazione Russa - Iaz, Yaz, Yaz'. Estonia - Säinas. Lituania - Mekne. Lettonia - Alants. Polonia - Jaz. Repubblica Ceca - Jalec tmavy, Jasek, Jelec jesen, Jesen nížinný, Jesen obecný, Jezuve, Ryba májová. Slovacchia - Jalec tmavý. Ungheria - Jász. Romania - Lugojanel, Vaduvita, Văduviţă. Bulgaria - Mazdruga. Serbia - Jez. Slovenia - Jez.

 

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Leuciscus idus (Linnaeus, 1758). Systema Nat. ed. 10 v. 1 324. Sinonimo senior, nuova combinazione, nomenclatura ICZN valida.

Cyprinus idus Linnaeus, 1758. Systema Naturae, Ed. X. (Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata.) Holmiae. Systema Naturae, Ed. X. v. 1: i-ii + 1-824. Pag. 324. Sinonimo senior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Nomenclatura specifica valida come Leuciscus idus (Linnaeus 1758), secondo Berg 1949:564, Yang & Hwang 1964:32, Lee et al. 1980:205, Coad 1981:11, Lelek 1987:203, Page & Burr 1991:65, Zhu 1995:30, Chereshnev 1996:600, Coad 1996:84, Kottelat 1997:67, Reshetnikov et al. 1997:738, Bogutskaya 1998:64, Koch & Paepke 1998:162, Luo in Chen et al. 1998:64, Fricke 1999:24, Fuller et al. 1999:87, Bogutskaya et al. 2001:43, Sideleva 2001:50, Sideleva 2003:9, Hanel 2003:49], Nelson et al. 2004:72, Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:85, Vassilev & Pehlivanov 2005:169, Hanel & Lusk 2005:197, Kottelat 2006:39, Ocock et al. 2006:39, Fricke 2007:28, Fricke et al. 2007:41, Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:206, Perea et al. 2010:15, Page & Burr 2011:155, Page et al. 2013:72, Parin et al. 2014:82, McDowall & Stewart 2015:317, Çiçek et al. 2015:146, Zhang et al. 2016:53, Romanov et al. 2017:821. Neotipo designato da Fricke 1999:24, ma ritirato in Fricke 2000:639. Località tipo: aque dolci d'Europa. Tipo: non è noto nessun esemplare tipo.

Idus idus (Linnaeus, 1758). Systema Nat. ed. 10 v. 1 324. Sinonimo senior, nuova combinazione, nomenclatura ICZN non valida.

Cyprinus orphus Linnaeus, 1758. Systema Nat. ed. 10 v. 1 324. Errore ortografico, nomenclatura ICZN non valida.

Leuciscus idus idus (Linnaeus, 1758). Systema Nat. ed. 10 v. 1 324. Sinonimo senior, nuova combinazione con cambio di grado, nomenclatura ICZN non valida.

Cyprinus idbarus Linnaeus, 1758. Systema Nat. ed. 10 v. 1 324. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Leuciscus idus (Linnaeus 1758), secondo Kottelat 1997:67, Fricke 1999:24. Scritto erroneamente "ibdarus" da Bonnaterre 1788:198. Neotipo designato da Fricke 1999:25, ma ritirato in Fricke 2000:639. Località tipo: laghi svedesi. Tipo: non è noto nessun esemplare tipo.

Cyprinus jeses Linnaeus, 1758. Systema Nat. ed. 10 v. 1 325. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Leuciscus idus (Linnaeus 1758), secondo Berg 1949:564, Kottelat 1997:67, Fricke 1999:24, Sideleva 2001:50, Sideleva 2003:9. Scritto "ieses" da Gmelin 1770:59. Neotipo designato da Fricke 1999:24, ma ritirato in Fricke 2000:639. Località tipo: Germania. Tipo: non è noto nessun esemplare tipo.

Cyprinus orfus Linnaeus, 1758. Systema Nat. ed. 10 v. 1 324. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Leuciscus idus (Linnaeus 1758), secondo Berg 1949:564, Lelek 1987:203, Kottelat 1997:67, Bogutskaya 1998:64, Fricke 1999:24, Sideleva 2001:50, Sideleva 2003:9. Neotipo designato da Fricke 1999:24, ma ritirato in Fricke 2000:639. Scritto "orphus" in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1841:227 e da altri autori. Località tipo: Reno, fiumi e laghi inglesi. Tipo: non è noto nessun esemplare tipo.

Cyprinus microlepidotus Ekström, 1835. Die Fische in dem Scheeren von Mörkö; aus dem Schwedischen übersetzt und mit einigen Anmerkungen verschen von Dr. F. C. H. Creplin. Berlin. Fische Mörkö 1-269; 18 Pl. 2. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Leuciscus idus (Linnaeus 1758), secondo Kottelat 1997:67. Originale non visionato. Località tipo: stretto dell'isola di Mörkö, vicino a Stoccolma, Svezia. Tipo: nessuno. Sintipi: collocazione attuale ignota.

Leuciscus neglectus Selys-Longchamps, 1842. Faune belge. Première partie. Indication méthodique des mammifères, oiseaux, reptiles et poissons, observés jusqu'ici en Belgique. Faune Belge i-xii + 1-310; 209. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Leuciscus idus (Linnaeus 1758), secondo Kottelat 1997:67. Catalogo: Kottelat 1984:148. Località tipo: Bruxelles, Belgio. Tipo: nessuno. Sintipi: (4) ?MHNN 1008 (1), ISNM (non trovato).

Idus melanotus Heckel, 1843. Ichthyologie [von Syrien]. In: J. von Russegger. Reisen in Europa, Asien und Africa, mit besonderer Rücksicht auf die naturwissenschaftlichen Verhältnisse der betreffenden Länder unternommen in den Jahren 1835 bis 1841, etc. Stuttgart. Ichthyol. von Syrien 990-1099; v. 1 (pt 2) 1008 Pl. 1.  Compare anche in Heckel 1852:59, 66 ed in Heckel & Kner 1858:147, Fig. 77.Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Nuovo nome non necessario per "Cyprinus idus" Linnaeus. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Leuciscus idus (Linnaeus 1758), secondo Berg 1949:564, Kottelat 1997:67. Località tipo: Europa. Tipo: non è noto nessun esemplare tipo.

Idus miniatus Bonaparte, 1845. Catalogo metodico dei Ciprinidi d'Europa, e rilievi sul volume XVII dell' istoria naturale dei pesci del Sig. Valenciennes. Milano. Cat. Ciprinidi 1-20; 9. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Leuciscus idus (Linnaeus 1758), secondo Kottelat 1997:67 [ref. 22952]). Località tipo: Europa dell'est. Tipo: nessuno. Sintipi: ?NMW 43432 (1).

Idus miniatus Heckel & Kner, 1858. Die Süsswasserfische der Österreichischen Monarchie, mit Rücksicht auf die angränzenden Länder. Leipzig. Süsswasserfische Osterr. Monarchie i-xii + 1-388; 151. Compare come nomen nudum in Heckel 1843:1038 [48]. Precedentemente occupato da Idus miniatus Bonaparte 1845, nomenclatura ICZN oggettivamente non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Leuciscus idus (Linnaeus 1758), secondo Kottelat 1997:67. Località tipo: torrenti nei Royal Gardens di Burg a Vienna, Austria. Tipo: nessuno. Sintipi: NMW 53432 (1).

Leuciscus idus lapponicus Günther, 1868. Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum. Catalogue of the Physostomi, containing the families Heteropygii, Cyprinidae, Gonorhynchidae, Hyodontidae, Osteoglossidae, Clupeidae,... [thru]... Halosauridae, in the colelction of the British Museum. Cat. Fishes i-xx + 1-512; v. 7 230. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Leuciscus idus (Linnaeus 1758), secondo Kottelat 1997:67. Località tipo: fiume Munio, Svezia e Finlandia. Tipo: nessuno. Sintipi: (attualmente 6) BMNH.

Idus oxianus Kessler, 1877. The Aralo-Caspian Expedition. IV. Fishes of the Aralo-Caspio-Pontine ichthyological region. St. Petersburg. Aralo-Caspian Exped. i-xxvii + 1-360; 129. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Leuciscus idus (Linnaeus 1758), ma valida sottospecie, secondo Berg 1949:567. Località tipo: basso corso del fiume Amu Darya, Uzbekistan. Tipo: nessuno. Sintipi: (3) ZIN 3665-66 (1, 1).

Squalius oxianus Kessler, 1877. Aralo-Caspian Exped. 124. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Leuciscus idus (Linnaeus 1758), secondo Kottelat 1997:67, Bogutskaya 1998:64. Sinonimo di Leuciscus idus (Linnaeus 1758), ma valida sottospecie, secondo Reshetnikov et al. 1997:738. Località tipo: basso corso del fiume Amu Darya, Uzbekistan. Tipo: nessuno. Sintipi: (2) ?Univ. di St. Petersburg 463, nessuno a ZIN.

Leuciscus idus oxianus (Kessler, 1877). Aralo-Caspian Exped. 124. Sinonimo junior, nuova combinazione, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Nuova combinazione per Squalius oxianus Kessler, 1877.

Idus melanotus orientalis Sinitzyn, 1900. Collections of the zoological cabinet of the Imperial Warsaw University. No. 6. List and description of the ichthyological collection. Varshavskogo Uchebnogo Okruga i-ii + -57; 45. Nomen nudum, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - In sinonimia di Leuciscus idus (Linnaeus 1758), secondo Kottelat 1997:67. Provenienza del materiale: lago Baikal, Russia;Univ. di Varsavia n° 6079.

Leuciscus idus auratus Bade, 1901. Die mitteleuropäischen Süsswasserfische; ihre Naturgeschichte, Lebensweise und ihr Fang. 2 vols. in 1. Stuttgart. Mitteleuropäischen Süsswasserfische 1-182; v. 1 128. Infrasubspecifico, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - In sinonimia di Leuciscus idus (Linnaeus 1758), secondo Kottelat 1997:67.

Leuciscus idus idus sibiricus Kirillov, 1958. Vodoemy Yakutii i ikh ryby. Yakutsk. Infrasubspecifico, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - In sinonimia di Leuciscus idus (Linnaeus 1758), secondo Kottelat 1997:67.

 

 

Fonti bibliografiche principali - Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof, 2007. Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol and Freyhof, Berlin. 646 pp.

 

 

Distribuzione di Leuciscus idus secondo IUCN

 

L'area di distribuzione va dall'Europa centrale ed orientale fino al bacino del fiume Lena a est. la specie è stata introdotta in Inghilterra ed in Scozia, dove si rinviene sporadicamente. L'Ido vive anche nella Penisola Scandinava, con l'eccezione del nord est della Norvegia e della Penisola di Kola. La specie è diffusa in Europa centrale dal Belgio e dal nord est della Francia (Escaut) fino ai fiumi del nord del Mar Nero e del Mar Caspio. Incredibilmente, durante gli anni '80, le uova dell'ido sono state importate illegalmente per posta in Nuova Zelanda; rilasci successivi si sono verificati nel 1985 e nel 1986 probabilmente in almeno 8 e località a nord di Auckland. La varietà dorata dell'Ido si è diffusa in varie località degli Stati Uniti, paese dove viene allevato come pesce ornamentale.

 

Introduzioni di Leuciscus idus
Periodo Provenienza Paese ospite Acclimatazione

dal 1990 al presente

ignota

Italia

si

non conosciuto

ignota

Spagna

probabile no

1930 - 1960

Europa centrale

Francia

no

1980 - 1989

Gran Bretagna

Nuova Zelanda

si

1980 - 1989

USA

Nuova Zelanda

si

1874

ignota

Gran Bretagna

si

1877

Europa

USA

si

1900

Francia e Germania

Olanda

probabile

 

 

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Anon., 1997. Fish registrations within the museum database of the Vertebrate Section of the Royal Museum for Central Africa. MRAC, Tervuren, Belgium. Leuciscus idus 13371 Riehl, R. and H.A. Baensch, 1996 Aquarien Atlas, Band 1. 10th edition. Mergus Verlag GmBH, Melle, Germany. 992 p.

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