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Sanguinerola europea,

Phoxinus phoxinus (Linnaeus, 1758)


 

Nomi comuni esteri - Francese - Amarante, Arlequin, Charbonnier, Cippa, Cuzeau, Garlesco, Gendarme, Grisette, Petit blanc, Vairon, Veirou, Verdou, Véricle, Voiron. Spagnolo - Pescardo, Piscardo. Inglese - Minnow, Common Minnow, Eurasian Minnow, European Minnow, Zaisan minnow. Galles - Pilcodyn. Gaelico - Libin. Tedesco - Blutelritze, Elritze, Pfelle, Pfrille. Olanda - Elrits. Danimarca - Elrits, Elritse. Svezia - Äling, Elritsa, Kvidd. Norvegia - Ørekyt, Orekyte. Finlandia - Mutu. Grecia - Kokkinogastros, Kοκκινόγαστρος. Romania - Boet, Boisca, Boiste, Boistean, Craesc, Craet, Crai, Scrofita, Verdete, Verzisoara. Repubblica Ceca - Cerebla, Strevle potocni. Estonia - Harilik lepamaim. Lettonia - Mailite. Lituania - Raine. Polonia - Strzebla potokowa. Russia - Goljan, Gol'yan, Golyan obyknovennyi, Gol'yan-krasavka, Zaisanskii gol'yan. Ungheria - Fürge cselle, Zlatica. Bulgaria - Leshanka. Serbia - Gagica. Slovenia - Pisanec. Albania - Skort pellgjesh.

 

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Phoxinus phoxinus (Linnaeus, 1758). Systema Nat. ed. 10 v. 1, 322. Sinonimo senior, nuova combinazione, nomenclatura ICZN valida.

Cyprinus phoxinus Linnaeus, 1758. Systema Naturae, Ed. X. (Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata.) v. 1, 322. Sinonimo senior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Nomenclatura specufica valida come Phoxinus phoxinus (Linnaeus 1758), secondo Berg 1949:588, Yang & Hwang 1964:23, Howes 1985:67, Mrakovcic et al. 1995:184, Lelek 1987:217, Zhu 1995:30, Bogutskaya & Naseka 1996:19, Chereshnev 1996:600, Bianco et al. 1996:52, Kottelat 1997:73, Bogutskaya 1997:174, Kim 1997:256, Reshetnikov et al. 1997:740, Bogutskaya 1998:68, Luo in Chen et al. 1998:75, Briolay et al. 1998:101, Fricke 1999:25, Sheiko & Fedorov 2000:17, Bogutskaya et al. 2001:43, Chereshnev et al. 2001:46, Pietsch et al. 2001:139, Sideleva 2001:51, Kim & Park 2002:164, Youn 2002:158, 517, Fedorov et al. 2003:25, Sideleva 2003:9, Hanel 2003:49, Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:96, Vassilev & Pehlivanov 2005:170. Località tipo: fiume Agger a nord di Lohmar, 50°50'N, 7°12'E, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany. Neotipo: NRM 55108. Il neotipo era stato designato da Fricke 1999:25, ma ritirato in Fricke 2000:639. Neotipo è adesso validamente designato da Kottelat 2007: 155; il neotipo è lo stesso di quello di  Cyprinus phoxinus Linnaeus 1758, il che li rende sinonimi oggettivi simultanei. Vedere anche Kottelat 2007: 155 a riguardo di altre questioni nomenclaturali.

Phoxinus phoxinus phoxinus (Linnaeus, 1758). Systema Nat. ed. 10 v. 1, 322. Sinonimo senior, nuova combinazione, nomenclatura ICZN non valida.

Leuciscus phoxinus (Linnaeus, 1758). Systema Nat. ed. 10 v. 1, 322. Sinonimo senior, nuova combinazione, nomenclatura ICZN non valida.

Cyprinus aphya Linnaeus, 1758. Systema Nat. ed. 10 v. 1 323. Scritto "aphia" da Bonnaterre 1788:196 e da altri autori. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Phoxinus phoxinus (Linnaeus 1758), secondo Berg 1949:588, Bogutskaya & Naseka 1996:20, Kottelat 1997:73, Bogutskaya 1998:68, Fricke 1999:25, Sideleva 2001:51, Sideleva 2003:9, Kottelat 2007:155. Località tipo: fiume Agger a nord di Lohmar, 50°50'N, 7°12'E, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany. Neotipo: NRM 55108. Il neotipo era stato designato da Fricke 1999:25, ma ritirato in Fricke 2000:639. Neotipo è adesso validamente designato da Kottelat 2007: 155; il neotipo è lo stesso di quello citato in  Cyprinus phoxinus Linnaeus 1758, il che li rende sinonimi oggettivi simultanei. Vedere anche Kottelat 2007: 155 a riguardo di altre questioni nomenclaturali.

Salmo rivularis Pallas, 1773. Reise durch verschiedene Provinzen des russischen Reiches. St. Petersburg. 3 vol. [vol. 1, 1771:12. index, + Pls. A-Z, AA-NN]. Reise Russ. Reiches; v. 2 617, 717. Scritto riuularis a p. 717, "rivularis" a p. 617; il primo revisore non ha fatto ricerche ma si presume che "riuularis" debba essere considerato un errore ortografico. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Phoxinus phoxinus (Linnaeus 1758), secondo Berg 1949:591, Bogutskaya & Naseka 1996:20, Kottelat 1997:73, Bogutskaya 1998:68, Sideleva 2003:9. Località tipo: torrenti nella zona dei monti Altai [p. 616: Zmcinogorsk, bacino del fiume Alei], Siberia. Sintipi: Istituto Zoologico dell'Academia delle Scienze di San Pietroburgo, Russia).

Phoxinus rivularis (Pallas, 1773). Reise Russ. Reiches v. 2 617, 717. Sinonimo junior, nuova combinazione, nomenclatura ICZN non valida.

Cyprinus rivularis (Pallas, 1773). Reise Russ. Reiches v. 2 617, 717. Sinonimo junior, nuova combinazione, nomenclatura ICZN non valida.

Cyprinus Morella Leske, 1774. Ichthyologiae Lipsiensis specimen. Lipsiae. Ichthyol. Lipsiensis i-iv + 1-82; 47. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Phoxinus phoxinus (Linnaeus 1758), secondo Kottelat 1997:73. Neotipo designato da Kottelat 1997:74. Località tipo: torrente Bode vicino a Rubeland, 103 km a nord ovest di Leipzig, Germania [per la designazione del neotipo la località originale è: Leipzig, Germania]. Tipo: MB 32661, Zoologisches Museum dell'Università di Humboldt a Berlino, Germania.

Cyprinus isetensis Georgi, 1775. Bemerkungen einer Reise im russischen Reich in 1772. St. Petersburg. 2 vols. Reise Russ. Reich. 1-920; 621. Basato su fonti di letteratura. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Phoxinus phoxinus (Linnaeus 1758), secondo Kottelat 1997:74. Località tipo: Catharinopolis, Siberia. Tipo: nessuno. Sintipi: collocazione attuale ignota.

Cyprinus Galian Gmelin, 1788. Basato su Lepechin [1771a: 491, pl. 26 fig. 2-3; 1772: pl. 9 fig. 4 - 5]. Status incerto probabilmente simile al precedente, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Località tipo: Catharinopolis, Siberia. Tipo: nessuno. Sintipi: collocazione attuale ignota.

Cyprinus chrysoprasius Pallas, 1814. Zoographia Rosso-Asiatica, sistens omnium animalium in extenso Imperio Rossico et adjacentibus maribus observatorum recensionem, domicilia, mores et descriptiones anatomen atque icones plurimorum. 3 vols. [1811-1814]. Petropoli. Zool. Rosso-Asiatica i-vii + 1-428 + index (I-CXXV); v. 3 318. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Phoxinus phoxinus (Linnaeus 1758), secondo Kottelat 1997:74. Località tipo: torrenti montani dei Monti Chersones, Crimea, Ucraina. Tipo: nessuno. Sintipi: collocazione attuale ignota.

Phoxinus varius Perty, 1832. Beiträge zur Kenntniss der Fauna Monacensis. Isis (Oken) 712-733; 719. Sostituzione, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Phoxinus phoxinus (Linnaeus 1758), secondo Kottelat 1997:74.

Phoxinus laevis Fitzinger, 1832. Ex Agassiz. Ueber die Ausarbeitung einer Fauna des Erzherzogthumes Oesterreich, nebst einer systematischen Aufzählung der in diesem Lande vorkommenden Säugethiere, Reptilien und Fische.... Beitr. Landesk. Oesterreich. 280-340; v. 1 337. Sostituzione, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Oggettivo sinonimo di Phoxinus phoxinus (Linnaeus 1758), secondo Kottelat 1997:74, Bogutskaya 1998:68, Sideleva 2001:51, Sideleva 2003:9, Vassilev & Pehlivanov 2005:170.

Phoxinus marsilii Heckel, 1836. Über einige neue, oder nicht gehörig unterschiedene Cyprinen, nebst einer systematischen Darstellung der europäischen Gattungen dieser Gruppe. Ann. Wien. Mus. Naturges. 219-234; v. 1 (n° 10) 232. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Phoxinus phoxinus (Linnaeus 1758), secondo Kottelat 1997:74. Località tipo: tutti i torrenti ad acqua fresca e corrente nei dintorni di Vienna, Austria; i sintipi sono conservati al Naturhistorisches Museum di Vienna.

Phoxynus montanus Ogerien, 1863. Histoire naturelle du Jura et des départements voisins. Tome III., Zoologie vivante. Masson, Paris. Hist. Nat. Jura i-xx + 570 pp.; 362. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Phoxinus phoxinus (Linnaeus 1758), secondo Kottelat 1997:74. Località tipo: fiume Ain nei pressi di Champagnole/cascata Queue de Cheval, vicino a Saint-Claude, Francia. Tipo: non è noto nessun esemplare tipo.

Phoxinus laevis balchaschana Kessler, 1879. Beiträge zur Ichthyologie von Central-Asien. Bull. Imp. Acad. Sci. St. Petersburg 282-310; v. 25, 283. Compare anche in Kessler 1879:234, fonti precedenti non rintracciate. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Phoxinus phoxinus (Linnaeus 1758), secondo Kottelat 1997:74. Località tipo: fiume Ayaguz vicino a Sergiopol, bacino del lago Balkhash, Kazakhstan. Tipo: nessuno. Sintipi [il cui numero totale è "almeno 100"]: Istituto Zoologico dell'Academia delle Scienze di San Pietroburgo, Russia, 4149, 4150 [6], Berg, 1912: 252).

Phoxinus phoxinus carpathicus Popescu-Gorj & Dumitriu, 1950. Observatiunii piscicole la Lacul Rosu (Ciuc). Buletinul Inst. Cercetari si Projectari Piscicole 81-99; v. 9 94 Fig. 6. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Phoxinus phoxinus (Linnaeus 1758), secondo Kottelat 1997:74. Località tipo: lago Rosu, Romania. Tipo: nessuno. Sintipi: collocazione attuale, ignota..

 

 

Note sulla nomenclatura - Siamo d'accordo con quanto affermato da Piergiorgio Bianco: "According to Kottelat (2007), the species living in Italy and Western Balkans is Phoxinus lumaireul. A detailed comparison of my samples from upper Adriatic rivers with the extensive neotype description given by Kottelat (2007) A taxonomic study on the genus Phoxinus (Acthinopterigy, Cyprinidae) from Italy and western Balkans with description of four new species: P. ketmaieri, P. karsticus, P. apollonicus and P. likai. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net Inoltre mplre popolazioni dell'Europa orientale, mediooriente, Siberia ed Asia. potrebbero a breve essere considerare come specie autonome.

 

 

Fonti bibliografiche principali - Kottelat M. and J. Freyhof 2007. Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Kottelat, Cornol, Switzerland and Freyof, Berlin, Germany. Pagina 227.

 

 

Distribuzione di Phoxinus poxinus secondo IUCN (obsolete)

 

 

L'area di distribuzione comprende gran parte dell'Europa e dell'Asia settentrionale, dalla Spagna al bacino del fiume Amur (Berg, 1932), ma la validità di gran parte delle popolazioni asiatiche è attualmente in discussione.

 

 

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