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Webmuseum Osteichthyes Cypriniformes Leuciscidae Rutilus

Rutilo del mar Nero,

Rutilus frisii (Nordmann, 1840)


 

Nomi comuni esteri -  Inglese - Black Sea roach. Tedesco - Schwarzmeerplötze. Danimarca -  Sortehavsskalle. Svezia -  Svartahavsmört. Finlandia -  Mustanmerensärki. Russo -  Shirvanska plotitschka, Vyrezub. Estonia - Hammassärg. Polonia -  Wyrozub. Repubblica Slovacca - Plotica perletová. Repubblica Ceca - Plotice perletová, Plotice perletová, Vyrezub. Romania - Ţăran. Turchia - Levkit baligi, Kutum. Iran - Sifid Mahi, Mahi Safid, Mahi Safid Daryacheh Khazar, Mahisephid-e-daryaye Khazar, Talaji.

 

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Rutilus frisii (Nordmann, 1840). Observations sur la fauna pontique. In: A. de Démidoff "Voyage Russie Mérid. 487". Sinonimo senior, nuova combinazione, nomenclatura ICZN valida.

Leuciscus frisii Nordmann, 1840. Observations sur la fauna pontique. In: A. de Démidoff "Voyage dans la Russie méridionale et la Crimée". Vol. III. Paris. Voyage Russie Mérid. 353-635; 487. Sinonimo senior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Nomenclatura valida come Rutilus frisii (Nordmann 1840), secondo Berg 1949:532, Coad 1995:19, Coad 1996:84, Kottelat 1997:77, Bogutskaya 1997:178, Reshetnikov et al. 1997:741, Bogutskaya 1998:69, Coad 1998:102, Bogutskaya et al. 2001:43, Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:87, Vassilev & Pehlivanov 2005:170, Bogutskaya & Iliadou 2006:294, Fricke et al. 2007:46, Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:240, Ninua & Japoshvili 2008:167, Marić 2010:157, Perea et al. 2010:15, Parin et al. 2014:91 come sottospecie, Çiçek et al. 2015:147, Levin et al. 2017:44. Località tipo: mercato di Odessa, fiumi Danubio, Bug, Dniester e Dnieper. Tipo: nessuno. Sintipi: ?NMW 50456 (2).

Cyprinus wiresuba Güldenstädt, 1787-91. Reisen durch Russland und im Kaukasischen Gebirge .... von P. S. Pallas. 2 vol. St. Petersburg. Reisen Russland. Nomen nudum, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - In sinonimia di Rutilus frisii (Nordmann 1840), secondo Kottelat 1997:77.

Leuciscus frisii caspius Lönnberg 1900. Bihang Kongl. Svenska Vet.-Akad. Handl. v. 26, afd. 4 (n° 8) 16. Discutibile, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Discutibile sinonimo di Rutilus frisii (Nordmann 1840), per Kottelat 1997:78. Sinonimo di Rutilus frisii (Nordmann 1840), ma valida sottospecie come da descrizione, secondo Bogutskaya 1997:178. Sinonimo di Rutilus frisii (Nordmann 1840), secondo Bogutskaya 1998:69, descritto come "razza" o sottospecie. Località tipo: delta del fiume Volga,  Russia. Tipo: NRM.

Gardonus wyrozub Walecki, 1863. Materyaly do fauny ichtyologicznéj Polski. Biblioteka Warszawska. Wiadomosci Z Nauk 325-364; v. 4 341, 360. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Rutilus frisii (Nordmann 1840), secondo Kottelat 1997:77 (Kottelat 1997:77 "restringe" la descrizione originale ad una sola fonte (Nordmann 1840), ma il Codice Internazionale di Nomenclatura Zoologica non prevede tale tipo di restrizione). La specie è stata istituita su diverse altre specie (alcune in parte) di altri autori. Località tipo: molte località. Tipo: non è noto nessun esemplare tipo. Sintipi: ?NMW 50456 (2).

Leuciscus frisii kutum Kamensky, 1901. Die Cypriniden der Kaukasusländer und ihrer angrenzenden Meere. 2. Liefrung. Tiflis. Cyprinids Caucas. 2 i-ii + i-ii + 1-192; 2 23, Pl. 12. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Rutilus frisii (Nordmann 1840), ma valida sottospecie come da descrizione, secondo Berg 1949:534, Reshetnikov et al. 1997:741. Discutibile sinonimo di Rutilus frisii (Nordmann 1840), secondo Kottelat 1997:78. Sinonimo di Rutilus frisii (Nordmann 1840), ma valida sottospecie come da descrizione, secondo Coad 1995:20. Sinonimo di Rutilus frisii (Nordmann 1840), sottospecie "caspius" (Lönnberg 1900), secondo Bogutskaya 1997:178. Sinonimo di Rutilus frisii (Nordmann 1840), secondo Bogutskaya 1998:69. Località tipo: sud del Mar Caspio e tributari, Azerbaijan e Iran; fiumi Volga e Ural, Russia. Tipo: nessuno. Sintipi: ?ZMT, nessuno al ZIN.

Rutilus frisii kutum (Kamensky, 1901). Cyprinids Caucas. 2  23, Pl. 12. Sinonimo junior, nuova combinazione per Leuciscus frisii kutum Kamensky 1901, Nomenclatura ICZN non valida.

Rutilus frisii velecensis Chichkoff 1932. Nouveaux poissons d'eau douce de la Bulgarie. Trav. Soc. Bulg. Sci. Nat. Sofia 355-376; v. 15-16 355, 371 Fig. 1. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Rutilus frisii (Nordmann 1840), secondo Kottelat 1997:78, Bogutskaya 1997:178 (scritto "velencensis"). Località tipo: fiumi Veleca e Rezvaïa, tributari del Mar Nero, Bulgaria. Tipo: nessuno. Sintipi: collocazione sconosciuta.

 

 

Note sulla sistematica - Secondo vari autori, sembra che le popolazioni del bacino del Mar Caspio appartengano ad una specie geneticamente distinta: Rutilus kutum.

 

 

Fonti bibliografiche principali - Kottelat M. and J. Freyhof 2007. Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Kottelat, Cornol, Switzerland and Freyof, Berlin, Germany. Pagina 240.

 

 

Distribuzione di Rutilus frisii secondo IUCN

 

 

In colore nero sono riportate le zone dove la specie è stata dichiarata estinta. Rutilus frisii è diffusa nei bacini del Mar Nero e Mare di Azov, assente dai bacini del Danubio e del fiume Kuban; nei fiumi Dniestr, Dniepr e South Bug non sono stati campionati esemplari dal 1985 (può essere estinta); nel fiume Don esiste una popolazione "landlocked" nel bacino artificiale Tsevokansk, e una anadroma nei tratti più bassi del fiume e nel Mar d'Azov. Nel bacino del Caspio, è estinta nei fiumi Volga e Ural, ma risulta ancora abbondante lungo la costa occidentale e meridionale, dalla foce del fiume Kuma a Gorgan Bay, dove entra nella maggior parte dei fiumi e lagune per la riproduzione.

 

 

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