www.ittiofauna.org
contact: stefano.porcellotti@ittiofauna.org
Webmuseum Osteichthyes Cypriniformes Leuciscidae Squalius

Cavedano europeo,

Squalius cephalus (Linnaeus, 1758)


 

Nomi comuni esteri - Francese - Chevaine, Chavasson, Cabeda, Cabot truité, Meunier, Mulet, Juègne. Inglese - Chub, European chub. Gaelico - Twb y dail. Tedesco - Döbel, Däbeler, Aitel, Dickkopf. Spagna - Cacho. Portoghese - Escalo. Grecia - Cephalos. Olanda - Meun, Kopvoorn. Danimarca - Døbel. Svezia - Färna. Norvegia - Stam. Finlandia - Turpa. Ungheria - Fejes domolykó. Estonia - Turb. Lettonia - Sapals. Lituania - šapalas. Polonia - Klen. Russo - Golavl, Golavl', Govali. Repubblica Ceca - Jalec tmavy, Jelec tloust. Romania - Clean, Bulgaria - Rechen cefal, Rechenclen. Serbia - Klen. Slovenia - Klen. Repubblica di Macedonia - Ohridski klen. Albania - Blyshi, Byluçi, Mëlyshi, Mylyshi. Turchia - Kosswig inci baligi, Tatlisukefali baligi.

 

  Click on the image to magnify and for informations about this photo.  
Click sull'immagine per ingrandire e per informazioni su questa foto.

 

Squalius cephalus (Linnaeus, 1758). Systema Nat. ed. 10 v. 1 322. Sinonimo senior, nuova combinazione, nomenclatura ICZN valida.

Cyprinus cephalus Linnaeus, 1758. Systema Naturae, Ed. X. (Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata.) Holmiae. Systema Naturae, Ed. X. v. 1: i-ii + 1-824. V. 1 322. Catalogo: Fernholm & Wheeler 1983:212-213, Wheeler 1991:163. Sinonimo senior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Nomenclatura valida come Leuciscus cephalus (Linnaeus 1758), secondo Berg 1949:555, Bianco & Knezevic 1987:53, Bianco 1988:4, Bianco 1988:151, Coad 1991:18, Bogutskaya 1994:617, Coad 1995:18, Chereshnev 1996:600, Coad 1996:71, Bianco et al. 1996:50, Kottelat 1997:64, Bogutskaya 1997:172, Reshetnikov et al. 1997:738, Bianco 1997:616, Bogutskaya 1998:63, Ketmaier et al. 1998:47, Coad 1998:102, Briolay et al. 1998:101, Gabrielyan 2001:27, Bogutskaya et al. 2001:43, Bianco & Ketmaier 2001:194, Hanel 2003:48, Vassilev & Pehlivanov 2005:169. Nomenclatura valida come Squalius cephalus (Linnaeus 1758), secondo Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:89. Kottelat 1997:66 "limita" il nome alle specie descritte da Artedi, ma il Codice di Nomenclatura Internazionale non prevede tale tipo di limitazioni. Località tipo: nord Europa. Tipo: nessuno. Sintipi: NRM 51 (1), ZMUU coll. Linn. 213 (1).

Leuciscus cephalus (Linnaeus, 1758). Systema Nat. ed. 10 v. 1 322. Sinonimo senior, nuova combinazione, nomenclatura ICZN non valida.

Leuciscus cephalus cephalus (Linnaeus, 1758). Systema Nat. ed. 10 v. 1 322. Sinonimo senior, nuova combinazione con cambio di grado, nomenclatura ICZN non valida.

Cyprinus chub Bonnaterre, 1788. Tableau encyclopédique et méthodique des trois règnes de la nature... Ichthyologie. Paris. Tabl. Encyclop. Méthod. Ichthyol. i-lvi + 1-215; 195 Pl. 77 (fig. 323). Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Leuciscus cephalus (Linnaeus 1758), secondo Kottelat 1997:64. Sinonimo di Squalius cephalus (Linnaeus 1758). Località tipo: fiumi d'Europa. Tipo: non è noto nessun esemplare tipo.

Cyprinus lugdunensis Walbaum, 1792. Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium. In quibus systema totum ichthyologiae proponitur cum classibus, ordinibus, generum characteribus, specierum differentiis, observationibus plurimis. Redactis speciebus 242 ad genera 52. Ichthyologiae pars III. Ant. Ferdin. Rose, Grypeswaldiae [Greifswald]. Artedi Piscium [i-viii] + 1-723; Pt. 3 29. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Leuciscus cephalus (Linnaeus 1758), secondo Kottelat 1997:64. Sinonimo di Squalius cephalus (Linnaeus 1758). Basato su materiale di Gronovius. Località tipo: fiume Reno vicino a Leiden, Olanda. Tipo: BMNH 1853.11.12.128.

Cyprinus orthonotus Hermann, 1804. Observationes zoologicae, quibus novae complures, aliaeque animalium species describuntur et illustrantur. Opus posthumum edidit Fridericus Ludovicus Hammer. Argentorati. Paris. Observ. Zool. i-viii + 1-332; 322. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Leuciscus cephalus (Linnaeus 1758), secondo Kottelat 1997:64. Sinonimo di Squalius cephalus (Linnaeus 1758). Località tipo: Francia. Tipo: non è noto nessun esemplare tipo.

Cyprinus albula Nardo, 1827. Prodromus observationum et disquisitionum ichthyologiae Adriaticae. Isis (Oken) col. 473-489; v. 20 (heft 6) 482, 488. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Leuciscus cephalus (Linnaeus 1758), secondo Kottelat 1997:64. Sinonimo di Squalius cephalus (Linnaeus 1758). Kottelat 1997:66 "limita" la descrizione del tipo ad una fonte letteraria ed a una località in Francia, ma il Codice di Nomenclatura Internazionale non prevede tale tipo di restrizioni. Località tipo: bacino del mare Adriatico e Francia. Tipo: nessuno. Sintipi: collocazione attuale ignota.

Cyprinus kietaibeli Reisinger, 1830. Specimen ichthyologiae sistens pisces aquarium dulcium Hungariae. Spec. Ichthyol. Hungariae i-xii + 1-98 + index; 77. Citato come "kittaibeli" da Valenciennes 1844:380. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Leuciscus cephalus (Linnaeus 1758), secondo Kottelat 1997:65. Sinonimo di Squalius cephalus (Linnaeus 1758). Località tipo: lago Balaton, Ungheria. Tipo: non è noto nessun esemplare tipo.

Cyprinus kittaibeli Reisinger, 1830. Spec. Ichthyol. Hungariae 77. Errore ortografico, nomenclatura ICZN non valida.

Leuciscus chub pictava De la Pylaie, 1835. Recherches, en France, sur les poissons de l'Océan, pendant les années 1832 et 1833. In: Mem. Congr. Sci. France, 2nd Sess., Poitiers, 1834. Rouen. Recherches France 524-534; 533. Nomen nudum, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - In sinonimia di Leuciscus cephalus (Linnaeus 1758), secondo Kottelat 1997:65. In sinonimia di Squalius cephalus (Linnaeus 1758). Provenienza del materiale: da Napoléon-Vendée, Francia.

Cyprinus rufus Vallot, 1837. Ichthyologie française, ou histoire naturelle des poissons d'eau douce de la France. Ichthyol. Française; 185. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Leuciscus cephalus (Linnaeus 1758), secondo Kottelat 1997:65. Sinonimo di Squalius cephalus (Linnaeus 1758). Località tipo: Pontailler e Auxonne, Francia. Tipo: nessuno. Sintipi: collocazione attuale ignota.

Leuciscus rissoi Schinz, 1840. Europaïsche Fauna; oder Verzeichniss der Wirbelthiere Europa's. 2 vols. Stuttgart. Vol. 2. Reptilien und Fische. Europaïsche Fauna i-vii + 1-535; 326. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Leuciscus cephalus (Linnaeus 1758), secondo Kottelat 1997:65. Sinonimo di Squalius cephalus (Linnaeus 1758). Località tipo: torrenti nei pressi di Nizza, Francia. Tipo: non è noto nessun esemplare tipo.

Squalius cephalopsis Heckel, 1843. Ichthyol. von Syrien v. 1 (pt 2) 1080 [90]. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Leuciscus cephalus (Linnaeus 1758), secondo Coad 1991:18, Coad 1995:19, Kottelat 1997:65, Bogutskaya 1997:172. Sinonimo di Squalius cephalus (Linnaeus 1758). Località tipo: Aleppo, Siria. Tipo: nessuno. Sintipi: NMW 49438 (3), 49440 (2).

Leuciscus albiensis Valenciennes, 1844. In Cuvier & Valenciennes. Histoire naturelle des poissons. Tome dix-septième. Suite du livre dix-huitième. Cyprinoïdes. Hist. Nat. Poiss. i-xxiii + 1-497 + 2 pp.; v. 17 194. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Leuciscus cephalus (Linnaeus 1758), secondo Kottelat 1997:65. Sinonimo di Squalius cephalus (Linnaeus 1758). Località tipo: fiume Elba, Germania. Tipo: collocazione attuale ignota.

Leuciscus frigidus Valenciennes, 1844. In Cuvier & Valenciennes. Hist. Nat. Poiss. v. 17 234. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Leuciscus cephalus (Linnaeus 1758), secondo Kottelat 1997:65. Sinonimo di Squalius cephalus (Linnaeus 1758). Basato su di un solo esemplare e su "Cyprinus idus" Bloch. Località tipo: Probabilmente Germania.

Squalius orientalis Heckel, 1847. Ichthyologie. In: Russegger, J. von: Reisen in Europa, Asien und Africa, .... unternommen in den Jahren 1835 bis 1841. Ichthyol., Russegger Reisen 205-357; v. 2 (pt 3) 225 Pl. 16 (fig. 2). Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Leuciscus cephalus (Linnaeus 1758), secondo Bogutskaya 1997:172. Sinonimo di Squalius cephalus (Linnaeus 1758). Località tipo: fiume Kueik vicino ad Aleppo, Siria. Tipo: nessuno. Sintipi: NMW 49438 (3), ?49440 (2).

Squalius meunier Heckel, 1852. Bericht einer ichthyologischen Reise. Anhang III. Sitzungsber. Akad. Wiss. Wien 49-123; v. 9 68. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Leuciscus cephalus (Linnaeus 1758), secondo Kottelat 1997:65. Sinonimo di Squalius cephalus (Linnaeus 1758). Basato su fonti di letteratura.

Cyprinus salmoneus Gronow, 1854. In Gray. Catalogue of fish collected and described by Laurence Theodore Gronow, now in the British Museum. London. Cat. Fish Gronow i-vii + 1-196; 186. Catalogo: Wheeler 1958:212 come olotipo. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Leuciscus cephalus (Linnaeus 1758), secondo Wheeler 1958:212, Kottelat 1997:65. Sinonimo di Squalius cephalus (Linnaeus 1758). Località tipo: fiume Reno vicino a Leiden (Leida), Olanda. Tipo: nessuno. Sintipi: BMNH 1853.11.12.138 [coll. Gronovius] (1, pelle).

Leuciscus latifrons Nilsson, 1855. Skandinavisk fauna. Fjerde Delen: Fiskarna. Första Häftet. Lund. Skand. Fauna i-xxxiv + 1-768; 309. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Leuciscus cephalus (Linnaeus 1758), secondo Kottelat 1997:65. Sinonimo di Squalius cephalus (Linnaeus 1758). Località tipo: Svezia; Finlandia. Tipo: nessuno. Sintipi: NRM (non rintracciato).

Squalius clathratus Blanchard, 1866. Les poissons des eaux douces de la France. Paris. Poissons Eaux Douces France i-xvi + 1-656; 398 Fig. 94. Catalogo: Bertin & Estève 1948:63, Almaça 1969:1125. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Leuciscus cephalus (Linnaeus 1758), secondo Kottelat 1997:65. Sinonimo di Squalius cephalus (Linnaeus 1758). Lectotipo designato da Almaça 1969:1125. Località tipo: fiume Lot a Cahors, Francia. Tipo: MNHN A-2260. Paralectotipi: MNHN B-2589 [ex MNHN A-2260] (1), A-2261 (1).

Squalius meridionalis Blanchard, 1866. Poissons Eaux Douces France 396 Fig. 33. Catalogo: Bertin & Estève 1948:63 con un olotipo, a causa della presenza di multiple località citate, non di è potuto stabilire un lectotipo. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Leuciscus cephalus (Linnaeus 1758), secondo Kottelat 1997:65. Sinonimo di Squalius cephalus (Linnaeus 1758). La designazione del lectotipo deve essere probabilmente assegnata a Kottelat 1997:65. Località tipo originali: fiume Sâve [lot-et-Garonne] e fiume Sorgue vicino ad Avignone nel bacino del Rodano, Francia. Tipo: MNHN A.2257. Paralectotipi: MNHN A-2257 (1), ?USNM 28580 (1).

Squalius turcicus platycephala Kamenskii, 1897. On Caucasian ichthyology. Trudy Obsh. Ispyt. Prir. Kharkov Univ. 79-99; v. 31 85 Pl. 4 (fig. 6-8). Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Leuciscus cephalus (Linnaeus 1758), sottospecie orientalis Nordmann 1840, secondo Berg 1949:559. Sinonimo di Leuciscus cephalus (Linnaeus 1758), secondo Coad 1995:19, Kottelat 1997:65. Sinonimo di Squalius cephalus (Linnaeus 1758). Località tipo: lago Taparavani e fiume Kyrchbulach, Caucaso, Georgia, Eurasia. Tipo: nessuno. Sintipi: (5) non rinvenuti a ZIN.

Squalius cephalus athurensis Roule & Cardaillac de Saint-Paul, 1903. Les chevaines et les vandoises du bassin de l'Adour. C. R. Assoc. Fr. Av. Sci. 731-733; v. 31 (pt 2) 732. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Leuciscus cephalus (Linnaeus 1758), secondo Kottelat 1997:66. Sinonimo di Squalius cephalus (Linnaeus 1758). Località tipo: fiume Adour, Francia. Tipo: nessuno. Sintipi:collocazione attuale ignota.

Leuciscus cephalus orientalis kaznakovi Berg, 1912. Faune Russie Pays Limitrophes v. 3 (pt 1) 143 Pl. 2 (fig. 3). Infrasubspecifico, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - In sinonimia di Leuciscus cephalus (Linnaeus 1758), secondo Coad 1995:19, Kottelat 1997:66. In sinonimia di Squalius cephalus (Linnaeus 1758). Provenienza del materiale: lago Nour vicino a Vandam, distretto di Nukha, Azerbaijan.

Leuciscus cephalus wjatkensis Lukasch, 1925. Fishes of the Lower Vyatka River. Trudy Vyatskogo Nauch.-issl. Inst. Kraev. 5-110; n°. 6, 50. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Leuciscus cephalus (Linnaeus 1758), secondo Kottelat 1997:66, Bogutskaya 1998:63. Sinonimo di Squalius cephalus (Linnaeus 1758). Località tipo: basso corso del fiume Vyatka nei pressi di Mulino, bacino del fiume Volga, Russia. Tipo: nessuno. Sintipi: collocazione attuale ignota.Leuciscus cephalus orientalis zangicus Barach, 1934. Trav. Zoologiques, Acad. Sci. USSR v. 1, 111. Infrasubspecifico, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - In sinonimia di Leuciscus cephalus (Linnaeus 1758), secondo Berg 1949:557, Coad 1995:19, Kottelat 1997:66. In sinonimia di Squalius cephalus (Linnaeus 1758). Provenienza del materiale: fiume Zanga, vicino a Yerevan, Armenia. Sintipi: Nat. Hist. Mus. Armenia (17).

Leuciscus cephalus macedonicus Karaman, 1955. Die Fische der Strumica (Struma-System). Acta Mus. Macedonici Sci. Nat. 181-208; v. 3 (n° 7) 185. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Nome precedentemente occupato da Leuciscus macedonicus Steindachner 1892. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Leuciscus cephalus (Linnaeus 1758), secondo Kottelat 1997:66. Sinonimo di Squalius cephalus (Linnaeus 1758). Località tipo: bacino del fiume Struma, ex Jugoslavia. Tipo: Nessuno. Sintipi: collocazione attuale ignota.

 

 

Note sulla sistematica - La sistematica della specie è controversa. Alla luce di recenti studi genetici e molecolari che ne hanno evidenziato la divergenza, molte popolazioni ascritte a questa specie si stanno rivelando come specie valide.

 

 

Fonti bibliografiche principali - Kottelat M. and J. Freyhof 2007. Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Kottelat, Cornol, Switzerland and Freyof, Berlin, Germany. Pagina 264 - 265.

 

 

Distribuzione di Squalius cephalus secondo IUCN

 

L'area di diffusione di S. cephalus comprende i bacini dei fiumi afferenti al Mare del Nord, Mar Baltico, Mar Bianco, Mar di Barents, Mar Caspio, i bacini fluviali delle coste settentrionali del Mar Nero, e quelli della costa atlantica dal Canale della Manica fino al bacino del fiume Adour in Francia. La specie è presente anche in Gran Bretagna (fino al 56° N), in Svezia (fino circa alla latitudine di Stoccolma), e nella Finlandia Meridionale. Nel bacino del Mediterraneo è presente nella Francia meridionale dal fiume Var all'Hérault. Introdotta, con acclimatazione, in Italia ed in altri paesi.

 

Bibliografia - AFMAFEWM (Austrian Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management), 2011. Checklist of species in Austria. Federal Office for Water Management, Institute of Waters Ecology, Fisheries and Lake Research.

Allardi, J. and P. Keith, 1991. Atlas préliminaire des poissons d'eau douce de France. Coll. Patrimoines Naturels, vol. 4. Secrétariat Faune Flore, Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris. 234 p.

Al-Sabti, K., 1986. Karyotypes of Cyprinus carpio and Leuciscus cephalus. Cytobios 47(188):19-25.

Al-Sabti, K., 1987. Cytogenetic studies on five species of Pisces from Yugoslavia. Cytobios 49:198-199.

Altman, P.L. and D.S. Dittmer, Editors, 1971. Respiration and circulation. Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, U.S.A.

Amori, G., F.M. Angelici, S. Frugis, G. Gandolfi, R. Groppali, B. Lanza, G. Relini and G. Vicini, 1993. Vertebrata. In A. Minelli, S. Ruffo and S. La Posta (eds.) Checklist delle specie della fauna Italiana, 110. Calderini, Bologna, 83 p.

Anonymous, 1994. Welsh names of animals and plants: I Vertebrates: fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals. p.17-26. In W.B.L. Evans (ed.) Cyfres enwan (creaduriaid a phlauhigion: I creaduriaid asgwrn-cefn pysgod, amffibiaid, ymlusgiaid, adar a mamaliaid. Cymdeithas Edward Llwyd.

Anon., 1997. Fish registrations within the museum database of the Vertebrate Section of the Royal Museum for Central Africa. MRAC, Tervuren, Belgium.

Anon., 1999. Fish collection database of the Natural History Museum, London (formerly British Museum of Natural History (BMNH)). Natural History Museum, London (formerly British Museum of Natural History (BMNH)).

Anon., 1999. Systematic list of Estonian fishes. World Wide Web Electronic Publication, 14 January 2000.

Anon., 2000. Fish collection database of the J.L.B. Smith Institute of Ichthyology, Grahamstown, South Africa. J.L.B. Smith Institute of Ichthyology, Grahamstown, South Africa.

Anon., 2000. Systematisk liste over norske fisk registert pr. 1997:

http://alun.uio.no/zoomus/generell/avdelinger/fisk/fiskeliste.html

Anon., 2000. The icthyological collection of the Zoological Museum Hamburg (ZMH). Division of Icthyology and Herpetology, Zoological Museum Hamburg (ZMH).

Anon., 2001. Fish collection database of the National Museum of Natural History (Smithsonian Institution). Smithsonian Institution - Division of Fishes.

Anon., 2001. Fish collection database of the Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen. Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen.

Anon., 2002. Fish collection database of the American Museum of Natural History. American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West , NY 10024-5192, USA.

Anon., 2002. Fish collection of the Royal British Columbia Museum. Royal British Columbia Museum, 675 Belleville Street, Victoria BC, Canada V8V 1X4.

Anon., 2003. Fish collection of the Royal Ontario Museum. Royal Ontario Museum.

Arkhipchuk, V.V., 1999. Chromosome database. Database of Dr. Victor Arkhipchuk.

Baensch, H.A. and R. Riehl, 1991. Aquarien atlas. Bd. 3. Melle: Mergus, Verlag für Natur- und Heimtierkunde, Germany.

Baensch, H.A. and R. Riehl, 1995. Aquarien Atlas. Band 4. Mergus Verlag GmbH, Verlag für Natur- und Heimtierkunde, Melle, Germany. 864 p.

Baillie, J. and B. Groombridge (eds.), 1996. 1996 IUCN red list of threatened animals. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland. 378 p.

Balik, S., 1995. Freshwater fish in Anatolia, Turkey. Biol. Conserv. 72:213-223.

Banarescu, P., 1964. Fauna Republicii Populare Romîne. Volumul XIII. Pisces - Osteichthyes (pesti ganoizi si osisi). Editura Academiei Republicii Populare Romîne, Bucuresti. 962 p.

Bartley, D.M. (comp./ed.), 2006. Introduced species in fisheries and aquaculture: information for responsible use and control (CD-ROM). Rome, FAO.

Baruš, V. and O. Oliva (eds.), 1995. Mihulovci a ryby. Fauna R a SR. (Cyclostomata and fishes. Fauna of Czech Republic and Slovakia). sv. 28 Academia Praha.

Berg, L., L.S. Bogdanov, N.I. Kozhin and T.S. Rass, Editors., 1949. Commercial fishes of the USSR. Pshchepromizdat.

Bianco, P.G. and P. Banarescu, 1982. A contirbution to the knowledge of the Cyprinidae of Iran (Pisces, Cypriniformes) (3). Cybium 6(2):75-96.

Bianco, P.G. and V. Ketmaier, 2001. Anthropogenic changes in the freshwater fish fauna of Italy, with reference to the central region and Barbus graellsii, a newly established alien species of Iberian origin. J. Fish Biol. 59(Suppl.A):190-208.

Bianco, P.G., 2013. An update on the status of native and exotic freshwater fishes of Italy. J. Appl. Ichthyol. (2013):1-15.

Billard, R., 1997 Les poissons d'eau douce des rivières de France. Identification, inventaire et répartition des 83 espèces. Lausanne, Delachaux & Niestlé, 192 p.

Birecikligil, S. and E. Ciçek, 2011. Length-weight relationships for 16 freshwater fishes caught in tributaries of Euphrates and Orontes rivers in Gaziantep (southeastern Anatolia, Turkey. J. Appl. Ichthyol. 27:1131-1132.

Blanc, M., J.-L. Gaudet, P. Banarescu and J.-C. Hureau, 1971. European inland water fish. A multilingual catalogue. Fishing News (Books) Ltd., London.

Bobori, D.C., P.S. Economidis and E.G. Maurakis, 2001. Freshwater fish habitat science and management in Greece. Aquatic Ecosystem Health and Management 4:381-391.

Bogutskaya, N., 2005. Compilation of 70 ecoregion in Russia with about 700 species.

Bogutskaya, N.G. and A.M. Naseka, 2002. REGIONAL CHECK-LISTS: Don River Drainage Area. In Website and Database: "Freshwater Fishes of Russia": A Source of Information on the Current State of the Fauna. Zoological Institute RAS.

Bogutskaya, N.G. & A.M. Naseka, 2002. REGIONAL CHECK-LISTS: Kuban River Drainage Area. In Website and Database: "Freshwater Fishes of Russia": A Source of Information on the Current State of the Fauna. Zoological Institute RAS.

Bogutskaya, N.G. & A.M. Naseka, 2002. REGIONAL CHECK-LISTS: Volga River Drainage Area. In Website and Database: "Freshwater Fishes of Russia": A Source of Information on the Current State of the Fauna. Zoological Institute RAS.

Bogutskaya, N.G. and P. Zupancic, 2010. Squalius janae, a new species of fish from the Adriatic Sea basin in Slovenia (Actinopterygii:Cyprinidae). Zootaxa 2536:53-68.

Bogutskaya, N.G., 1997. Contribution to the knowledge of leuciscine fishes of Asia Minor. Part 2. An annotated check-list of leuciscine fishes (Leuciscinae, Cyprinidae) of Turkey with descriptions of a new species and two new subspecies. Mitt. Hamb. Zool. Mus. Inst. 94:161-186.

Bogutskaya, N.G., 2002. Petroleuciscus, a new genus for the Leuciscus borysthenicus species group (Teleostei: Cyprinidae). Zoosyst. Rossica 11:235-237.

Borbori, D.C., P.S. Economidis and E.G. Maurakis, 2001. Freshwater fish habitat science and management in Greece. Aquatic Ecosystem Health and Management 4: 381-391.

Bundesanstalt für Landwirtschaft und Ernährung, 2003. Verzeichnis der Handelsbezeichnungen für Erzeugnisse der Fischerei und der Aquakultur. Retrieved 17 June 2003, from http://www.ble.de.

Cataudella, S., L. Sola, R. Muratori, and E. Capanna, 1977. The chromosomes of 11 species of Cyprinidae and one Cobitidae from Italy, with some remarks on the problems of polyploidy in the Cypriniformes. Genetica 47:161-171.

Coad, B.W., 2003 Freshwater fishes of Iran: checklists of Farsi names. Retrieved July 16, 2003, from:

http://www.purethrottle.com/briancoad/checklists/farsinameslist.htm

Crivelli, A.J., 1996 The freshwater fish endemic to the Mediterranean region. An action plan for their conservation. Tour du Valat Publication, 171 p.

Cuvier, M.B. and M.A. Valenciennes, 1844. Histoire naturelle des poissons. Tome 17. Suite du livre dix-huitième. Cyprinoïdes. Hist. Nat. Poiss., July, v. 17: i-xxiii + 1-497 + 2 pp., Chez V. Levrault, Paris.

Dhora, Dh., 2008. Fjalor i emrave të kafshëve të Shqipërisë (Emri shkencor - Shqip - Anglisht) / Dictionary of animal names of Albania (Scientific names - Albanian - English). Camaj - Pipa. Shkodër, Albania. pp. 288.

Dhora, Dh., 2010. Regjistër I specieve të faunës së Shqipërisë 2010. Shkodër: Camaj-Pipa. 208 p.

Doadrio, I. and J.A. Carmona, 2006. Phylogenetic overview of the genus Squalius (Actinopterygii, Cyprinidae) in the Iberian Peninsula, with description of two new species. Cybium 30(3):199-214.

eElurikkus, 2015. eElurikkus koondab ühte portaali Eesti eluslooduse andmed. http://elurikkus.ut.ee

Economidis, P.S., 1973. Catalogue of the fishes of Greece. Reprinted from Hellenic Oceanology and Limnology, Praktika of the Inst. of Ocean. and Fishing Research, vol. 11 (1972).

Economidis, P.S., 1991. Check list of freshwater fishes of Greece (recent status of threats and protection). Hellenic Society for the Protection of Nature, Special publication, 48 p.

Economidis, P.S., E. Dimitriou, R. Pagoni, E. Michaloudi and L. Natsis., 2000. Introduced and translocated fish species in the inland waters of Greece. Fish. Manage. Ecol. 7:239-250.

Economou, A.N., C. Daoulas and T. Psarras, 1991. Growth and morphological development of chub, Leuciscus cephalus (L.), during the first year of life. J. Fish Biol. 39(3):393-408.

Elvira, B., 1996. Endangered freshwater fish of Spain. p. 55-61. A. Kirchhofer and D. Hefti (eds) In Conservation of Endangered Freshwater Fish in Europe. Birkhäuser Verlag, Basel, Switzerland.

Encina, L. and C. Granado-Lorencio, 1991. Diet and diel feeding chronology of three Iberian fish species. Ecol. Int Bull. 19:43-64.

Erdogan, O., M. Turkmen and A. Yildirim, 2002. Studies on the Age, Growth and Reproduction Characteristics of the Chub, Leuciscus cephalus orientalis, (Nordmann, 1840) in Karasu River, Turkey. Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences 26:983-991.

Eschmeyer, W.N., 1996 PISCES. Eschmeyer's PISCES database, published on the Internet in November 1996.

Esmaeili, H.R., A. Gholamifard, S. Vatandoust, G. Sayyadzadeh, G. Zare and S. Babaei, 2014. Length-weight relationships for 37 freshwater fish species of Iran. J. Appl. Ichthyol. 30:1073-1076.

FAO-FIES, 2017. Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Information System (ASFIS) species list. Retrievef from http://www.fao.org/fishery/collection/asfis/en (accessed 08/06/2017).

Fricke, R., M. Bilecenoglu and H.M. Sari, 2007. Annotated checklist of fish and lamprey species (Gnathostoma and Petromyzontomorphi) of Turkey, including a Red List of threatened and declining species. Stuttgarter Beitr. Naturk. Sea A (706):1-172.

Gabrielyan, B.K., 2001. An annotated checklist of freshwater fishes of Armenia. Naga ICLARM Q. 24(3&4):23-29.

Gerstmeier, R. and T. Romig, 1998. Die Süßwasserfische Europas: für Naturfreunde und Angler. Franckh-Kosmos Verlag, Stuttgart, Germany. 368 p.

Grabda, E. and T. Heese, 1991. Polskie nazewnictwo popularne kraglouste i ryby. Cyclostomata et Pisces. Wyzsza Szkola Inzynierska w Koszalinie. Koszalin, Poland. 171 p.

Guinand, B., Y. Bouvet and B. Brohon, 1996. Spatial aspects of genetic differentiation of the European chub in the Rhone River basin. J. Fish Biol. 49:714-726.

Hafez, R., R. Labat, and R. Quillier, 1978. Etude cytogenétique chez quelques espèces de cyprinides de la région Midi Pyrénées. Bull. Soc. Hist. Natur. Toulouse 114:1-38.

Hanel, L. and J. Novák, 2002. Ceské názvy zivocichu V. Ryby a ryboviti obratlovci (Pisces) 3., maloústí (Gonorhynchiformes) - máloostní (Cypriniformes). Národní muzeum (zoologické oddelení), Praha.

Hanfling, B. and R. Brandl, 1998 Genetic and morphological variation in a common European cyprinid, Leuciscus cephalus within and across Central European drainages J. Fish Biol. 52:706-715.

Hartmann, G.L., 1827. Helvetische Ichthyologie, oder ausführliche Naturgeschichte der in der Schweiz sich vorfindenden Fische. Orell, Füßli und Compagnie, Zürich, Switzerland.

Hesselio, M.P., 1675 .Hertzfliessende Betrachtungen von dem Elbe-Strom. Eigenverlag Altona, [Hamburg, Germany].

Hickley, P. and R.G. Bailey, 1982 Observations on the growth and production of chub Leuciscus cephalus and dace Leuciscus leuciscus in a small lowland river in southeast England. Freshwat. Biol. 12:167-178.

Houde, E.D. and C.E. Zastrow, 1993. Ecosystem- and taxon-specific dynamic and energetics properties of fish larvae assemblages. Bull. Mar. Sci. 53(2):290-335.

Hureau, J.-C., 1991. La base de données GICIM: Gestion informatisée des collections ichthyologiques du Muséum. p. 225-227. In Atlas Preliminaire des Poissons d'Eaux Douce de France. Conseil Supérieur de la Pêche, Ministère de l'Environment, CEMAGREF et Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.

Hureau, J.-C., 1991 La base de données GICIM: Gestion informatisée des collections ichthyologiques du Muséum. p. 225-Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea and W.B. Scott, 1991 World fishes important to North Americans. Exclusive of species from the continental waters of the United States and Canada. Am. Fish. Soc. Spec. Publ. (21):243 p.

Hänfling, B. and R. Brandl, 1998. Genetic and morphological variation in a common European cyprinid, Leuciscus cephalus within and across central European drainages. J. Fish Biol. 52:706-715.

Iacob, L. and I. Dima, 2006. Regnul Animalia. Eukarya. Enciclopedia Florei si Faunei din Romania.

IGFA, 2001. Database of IGFA angling records until 2001. IGFA, Fort Lauderdale, USA.

International Game Fish Association, 1991 World record game fishes. International Game Fish Association, Florida, USA.

Ivanova, M.T., 1939. The respiration of various species of fishes of the Moscow River in the region of Zvenigorod. Uchenye zapiski MGU (Moscow State University) 33:51-63.

Keith, P. and J. Allardi (coord.), 2001. Atlas des poissons d'eau douce de France. Patrimoines naturels, 47: 387 p. Paris: MNHN.

Kleanthidis, P.K. and K.I. Stergiou, 2006. Growth parameters and length-length relationships of Greek freshwater fishes. p. 69-77. In M.L.D. Palomares, K.I. Stergiou and D. Pauly (eds.) Fishes in databases and ecosystems. Fisheries Centre Research Reports 14(4). Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia.

Kleanthidis, P.K., A.I. Sinis and K.I. Stergiou, 2000. Length-weight relationships of Hellenic freshwater fishes. Fish. Res.

Klinkhardt, M, M. Tesche and H. Greven, 1995. Database of fish chromosomes. Westarp Wissenschaften.

Koli, L., 1990. Suomen kalat. [Fishes of Finland] Werner Söderström Osakeyhtiö. Helsinki. 357 p.

Kottelat, M. and P.S. Economidis, 2006. Squalius orpheus, a new species of cyprinid fish from Evros drainage, Greece (Teleostei: Cyprinidae). Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwat. 17(2):181-186.

Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof, 2007. Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol and Freyhof, Berlin. 646 pp.

Kottelat, M., 1997. European freshwater fishes. Biologia 52, Suppl. 5:1-271.

Koutrakis, E.T., A.K. Kokkinakis, E.A. Eleftheriadis and M.D. Argyropoulou, 2000. Seasonal changes in distribution and abundance of the fish fauna in the two estuarine systems of Strymonikos Gulf (Macedonia, Greece). Belgian J. Zool. 130:41-48.

Kovacic, M. and R. Sanda, 2007. A new species of Knipowitschia (Perciformes: Gobiidae) from southern Montenegro. J. Natl. Mus. (Prague), Nat. Hist. Ser. 176(5):81-89.

Koç, H.T., Z. Erdogan, M. Tinkci and T. Treer, 2007. Age, growth, and reproductive characteristics of chub Leuciscus cephalus (L., 1758) in the Ikezcetepeler dam lake (Balikesir), Turkey. J. Appl. Ichthyol. 23:19-24.

Kullander, S.O., 1999. Swedish fishes: checklist of Swedish fishes. Swedish Museum of Natural History:

http://www.nrm.se/ve/pisces/allfish.shtml.en, 25 May 1999.

Lévèque, C., J.-R. Durand and J.-M. Écoutin, 1977. Relations entre le rapport P/B et la longévité des organismes. Cah. O.R.S.T.O.M., sér. Hydrobiol., XI(1):17-31.

Linnaeus, C., 1758. Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordinus, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, Holmiae. 824 p.

Lusk, S. and L. Hanel, 2000. The Red List of lampreys and fishes in the Czech Republic - Version 2000. Biodiverzita ichtyofauny CR(III):5-13.

Lusk, S., L. Hanel and V. Lusková, 2004. Red list of the ichthyofauna of the Czech Republic: Development and present status. Folia Zool. 53 (2) 215-226.

Maitland, P.S. and A.A. Lyle, 1996. Threatened freshwater fishes of Great Britain. p. 9-21. A. Kirchhofer and D. Hefti (eds) In Conservation of Endangered Freshwater Fish in Europe. Birkhäuser Verlag, Basel, Switzerland.

Maitland, P.S. and R.N. Campbell, 1992. Freshwater fishes of the British Isles. HarperCollins Publishers, London.368 p.

Mann, R.H.K., 1976. Observations on the age, growth, reproduction and food of the chub Squalius cephalus (L.) in the River Stour, Dorset. J. Fish Biol. 8:265-288.

Mann, R.H.K., 1976. Observations on the age, growth, reproduction and food of the chub Squalius cephalus (L.) in the River Stour, Dorset. J. Fish Biol. 8:265-288.

Ministero Delle Politiche Agricole Alimantari e Forestali, 2008. Elenco delle denominazioni in lingua Italiana: Delle specieittiche di interesse commerciale. Gazzetta Ufficiale Repubblica Italiana. Serie generale N. 45:

http://gazzette.comune.jesi.an.it/2008/45/4.htm.

Muus, B.J. and P. Dahlström, 1968. Süßwasserfische. BLV Verlagsgesellschaft, München. 224 p.

Muus, B.J. and P. Dahlstrøm, 1990. Europas ferskvandsfisk. GEC Gads Forlag, København. 224p.

Myers, R.A., J. Bridson and N.J. Barrowman, 1995. Summary of worldwide spawner and recruitment data. Can. Tech. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 2024. 274 p.

Ndoc, R. and A. Flloko, 1995. Iktiofauna e Shqiperise. Shtepia botuese "Libri Universitar", Tirana, Albania.

Neophitou, C., 1988. Autecology of chub, Leuciscus cephalus (L.) in a Greek stream and the use of the pharyngeal bone in fish predator-prey. Aquac. Fish. Manage. 19:179-190.

Nijssen, H. and S.J. de Groot., 1974. Catalogue of fish species of the Netherlands. Beaufortia 21(285):173-207.

Ojaveer, E., E. Pihu and T. Saat, 2003. Fishes of Estonia. Estonian Academy Publishers, Tallinn. 416 p.

Pinder, A.C., 2001. Keys to larval and juvenile stages of coarse fishes from fresh waters in the British Isles. Freshwater Biological Association. The Ferry House, Far Sawrey, Ambleside, Cumbria, UK. Scientific Publication No. 60. 136 p.

Plikss, M., 2002. Fish of Latvia http://latvijas.daba.lv/scripts/db/saraksti/saraksti.cgi?d=zivis&l=en.

Rass, T.S., 1983. Fish. Vol. 4, Life of animals. V.E. Sokolov (ed.), Moscow: Prosveschenie. 575 p.

Reshetnikov, Y.S., N.G. Bogutskaya, E.D. Vasil'eva, E.A. Dorofeeva, A.M. Naseka, O.A. Popova, K.A. Savvaitova, V.G. Sideleva and L.I. Sokolov, 1997. An annotated check-list of the freshwater fishes of Russia. J. Ichthyol. 37(9):687-736.

Riede, K., 2004. Global register of migratory species - from global to regional scales. Final Report of the R&D-Projekt 808 05 081. Federal Agency for Nature Conservation, Bonn, Germany. 329 p.

Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea and W.B. Scott, 1991. World fishes important to North Americans. Exclusive of species from the continental waters of the United States and Canada. Am. Fish. Soc. Spec. Publ. (21):243 p.

Smolian, K., 1920. Merkbuch der Binnenfischerei. Fischereiförderung GmbH, Berlin, Germany, p. 449, XXV.

Sofradzija, A., 1977. Karyologia i citotaksonomija vrsta roda Leuciscus iz voda Bosne i Hercegovine Godisnjak biol. Inst. Saraj.. 30():113-211.

Spillman, C. J., 1961. Faune de France: Poissons d'eau douce. Fédération Française des Sociétés Naturelles,Tome 65. Paris. 303 p.

Spratte, S and U. Hartmann, 1997. Fischartenkataster: Süßwasserfische und Neunaugen in Schleswig-Holstein. Ministerium für ländliche Räume, Landwirtschaft, Ernährung und Tourismus, Kiel Germany. 183 p.

Stoumboudi, M.T., M. Kottelat and R. Barbieri, 2006. The fishes of the inland waters of Lesbos Island, Greece. Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwat. 17(2):129-146.

Swedish Museum of Natural History, 1999. NRM Ichthyology collection database. Ichthyology Section, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden.

Tarkan, A.S., O. Gaygusuz, H. Acipinar, C. Gürsoy and M. Ozulug, 2006. Length-weight relationship of fishes from the Marmara region (NW-Turkey). J. Appl. Ichthyol. 22:271-273.

Teletchea, F., A. Fostier, E. Kamler, J-N. Gardeur, P-Y. Le Bail, B. Jalabert and P. Fontaine, 2009. Comparative analysis of reproductive traits in 65 freshwater fish species: application to the domestication of new fish species. Rev. Fish Biol. Fish. 19:403-430.

Treer,T., D. Habekovic, I. Anicic, R. Safner and A. Kolak, 1997. Standard growth curve for chub (Leuciscus cephalus L. 1758) in Croatia. Ribarstvo 55(2):47-52.

Turan, D., B.T. Yilmaz and C. Kaya, 2009. Squalius kottelati, a new cyprinid species (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) from Orontes River, Turkey. Zootaxa 2270:53-62.

Turan, D., M. Kottelat and E. Do?an, 2013. Two new species of Squalius, S. adanaensis and S. seyhanensis (Teleostei: Cyprinidae), from the Seyhan River in Turkey. Zootaxa 3637(3):308-324.

Turkmen, M., H.I. Haliloglu, O. Erdogan and A. Yildirim, 1999. The Growth and Reproduction Characteristics of Chub Leuciscus cephalus orientalis (Nordmann, 1840) Living in the River Aras. Turkish Journal of Zoology 23:355-364.

Vasil'ev, V.P., 1980. Chromosome numbers in fish-like vertebrates and fish. J. Ichthyol. 20(3):1-38.

Vostradovsky, J., 1973. Freshwater fishes. The Hamlyn Publishing Group Limited, London. 252 p.

Wheeler, A., 1992. A list of the common and scientific names of fishes of the British Isles. J. Fish Biol. 41(1):1-37.

Wieser, W., H. Forstner, F. Schiemer and W. Mark, 1988. Growth rates and growth efficiencies in larvae and juveniles of Rutilus rutilus and other cyprinid species: effects of temperature and food in the laboratory and in the field. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 45:943-950.

Winberg, G.G., 1960. Rate of metabolism and food requirements of fishes. In: F.E.J. Fry and W.E. Ricker (eds.) Translation Series No. 194. Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Biological Station, Nanaimo, B.C.

Winkler, H.M., K. Skora, R. Repecka, M. Ploks, A. Neelov, L. Urho, A. Gushin and H. Jespersen, 2000. Checklist and status of fish species in the Baltic Sea. ICES CM 2000/Mini:11, 15 p.

Wolf, V., H. Ritter, N.B. Atkin and S. Ohno, 1969. Polyploidization in the fish family Cyprinidae, order Cypriniformes. I. DNA content and chromosome sets in various species of Cyprinidae. Humangenetik 7:240-244.

Wüstemann, O. and B. Kammerad, 1995 Der Hasel, Leuciscus leuciscus. Westarp Wissenschaften, Magdeburg, Germany, 195 p.

Çiçek, E., R. Fricke and S.S. Birecikligil, 2015. Freshwater fishes of Turkey: a revised and updated annotated checklist. BIHAREAN BIOLOGIST 9(2):141-157.

Özulu?, M. and J. Freyhof, 2011. Revision of the genus Squalius in Western and Central Anatolia, with description of four new species (Teleostei: Cyprinidae). Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwat. 22(2):107-148.

Ünlü, E. and K. Balci, 1993. Observation on the reproduction of Leuciscus cephalus orientalis (Cyprinidae) in Savur stream (Turkey). Cybium 17(3):241-250.

Ünver, B., 1998. An Investigation on the Reproduction Properties of Chub Leuciscus cephalus (L.,1758) in Lake Tödürge (Zara/Sivas). Turkish Journal of Zoology 22:141-147.

 


Webmuseum Osteichthyes Cypriniformes Leuciscidae Squalius
www.ittiofauna.org Webmuseum
Google
 
contact: stefano.porcellotti@ittiofauna.org