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contact: stefano.porcellotti@ittiofauna.org
Webmuseum Osteichthyes Cyprinodontiformes Poeciliidae Gambusia

Gambusia orientale,

Gambusia holbrooki, Girard 1859


 

Nomi comuni esteri - Portogallo - Peixe-mosquito, Peixe-sapo, Gambusino. Inglese - Eastern mosquito fish, Holbrook’s mosquitofish, Plague minnow, Gambies, Bore-drain fish, Starling's perch. Albania - Barkaleci pikalosh, Barkuleci, Peshku i mushkonjave. Romania - Gambuzie. Svezia - Östlig moskitfisk. Danimarca - Østlig moskitofisk. Finlandia - Täplämoskiittokala, Marmorimoskiittokala.  Federazione Russa - khol'brukskaya gambuziya. Kyrgyzstan - Kidik gambuziya. Turchia - Sivrisinek baligi. Iran - Gambusia. Madagascar - Pirina, Ampirina. Cina - Dōngbù shí wén yú.

 

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Gambusia holbrooki Girard 1859. Ex Agassiz. Ichthyological notices. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 11: 56-68. Catalogo - Böhlke 1984:143, Parenti et al. 1999:7. Nome tratto dal manoscritto di Agassiz (come Heterandria holbrookii), ma l'autore della descrizione è Girard. Il nome holbrooki è fatto da Girard a p. 62. Sinonimo senior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Gambusia affinis (Baird & Girard 1853)ma valida sottospecie, secondo La Rivers 1994:532, Reshetnikov et al. 1997:746, Seegers et al. 2003:41, Vassilev & Pehli-vanov 2005:174, Ninua & Japoshvili 2008:169. Sinonimo di Gambusia affinis (Baird & Girard 1853), secondo Rosen & Bailey 1963:95, Lee et al. 1980:538, Cadwallader & Backhouse 1983:214, Pequeño 1989:51, Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:558 , Heemstra et al. 2004:3317, Hammer & Walker 2004:91, Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:178, Miller 2006:227, Hoese & Gates 2006:742, Fricke et al. 2007:72, Scharpf 2007:18. Nomenclatura specifica valida come Gambusia holbrooki Girard 1859, secondo Wooten et al. 1988:283, Rauchenberger 1989:3, Hernandez-Martich & Smith 1990:619, Coad 1991:20, Jenkins & Burkhead 1994:618, Coad 1995:26, McDowall in McDowall 1996:116, Coad 1996:85, Mettee et al. 1996:479, Murdy et al. 1997:129, Savvaitova & Reshetnikov 1998:107, Kullander et al. 1999:151, McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:924, Morgan et al. 1998:41, Fuller et al. 1999:304, Parenti et al. 1999:7, Fricke 1999:114, Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:180, Dyer 2000:89, Walters & Freeman 2000:555, Freyhof et al. 2000:96, Gabrielyan 2001:28, Ross et al. 2001:378, Bianco & Ketmaier 2001:201, Allen et al. 2002:365, Doadrio et al. 2002:78, Ghedotti & Wiley 2003:1157, Nelson et al. 2004:103, Boschung & Mayden 2004:410, Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:482, Fricke et al. 2009:32, Meyer et al. 2010:13 (scritto holbrookii), Minckley & Marsh 2009:254, Esmaeili et al. 2010:375, Page & Burr 2011:446, Morgan et al. 2011:22, Hammer et al. 2012:66, Langerhans et al. 2012:1530, Page et al. 2013:109, Larson et al. 2013:70, Kottelat 2013:300, Sarmiento et al. 2014:187, Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2015:894, Meyer scritto holbrookii, Barbieri et al. 2015:92, Esmaeili et al. 2015:122, Çiçek et al. 2015:150, Miesen et al. 2016:87, Esmaeili et al. 2017:92, Koerber et al. 2017:9, Esmaeili et al. 2018:74, Fricke et al. 2018:108, Kuiter 2018:101, Robins et al. 2018:228. Località tipo - Palatka, Florida; Charleston, South Carolina, U.S.A. Tipo - Nessuno. Sintipi - ANSP 6976-77 (2) Palatka, MCZ 35999 [ex USNM 8301] (5) Charleston, USNM 8301 (45).

Gambusia affinis holbrooki Girard, 1859. Ichthyological notices. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 56-68. Sinonimo senior, nuova combinazione, nomenclatura ICZN non valida.

Heterandria holbrooki Girard, 1859. Ichthyological notices. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 56-68. Sinonimo senior, nuova combinazione, nomenclatura ICZN non valida.

Schizophallus holbrooki Girard, 1859. Ichthyological notices. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 56-68. Sinonimo senior, nuova combinazione, nomenclatura ICZN non valida.

Gambusia patruelis holbrooki Girard, 1859. Ichthyological notices. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 56-68. Sinonimo senior, nuova combinazione, nomenclatura ICZN non valida.

Gambusia affinis holbrocki Girard, 1859. Ichthyological notices. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 56-68. Errore ortografico, nomenclatura ICZN non valida.

Gambusia holbrookii Girard, 1859. Ichthyological notices. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 56-68. Errore ortografico, nomenclatura ICZN non valida.

Heterandria uninotata (non Poey, 1860). Errore d'identificazione, nomenclatura ICZN non valida.

Zygonectes atrilatus Jordan & Brayton, 1878. Contributions to North American ichthyology. n° 3. A. On the distribution of the fishes of the Allegany region of South Carolina, Georgia, and Tennessee, with descriptions of new or little known species. Bulletin of the United States National Museum n° 12: 3-95. Catalogo - Parenti et al. 1999:19. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura non valida. Opinioni . Sinonimo di Gambusia holbrooki Girard 1859, secondo Parenti et al. 1999:19. Sinonimo di Gambusia affinis (Baird & Girard 1853), secondo Lucinda in Reis et al. 2003:558, secondo gli autori del Catalog of fishes della California Academy of Sciences. Località tipo - Fiume Neuse vicino a Goldsboro, North Carolina, U.S.A. Secondo me (S. Porcellotti) la località tipo sembra indicare che si tratti di Gambusia holbrooki Girard 1859, escludendo la possibilità che si tratti di Gambusia affinis (Baird & Girard 1853), come sostenuto nel "Catalog of fishes", California Academy of Sciences. Tipo - Nessuno. Sintipi - BMNH 1880.1.21.48 (1), USNM 23464 (1).

 

 

Note sulla sistematica - Kottelat e Freyhof sostengono che G. holbrooki sia l'unica specie del genere Gambusia sicuramente presente nelle acque interne Europee, specie più resistente alle basse temperature rispetto a Gambusia affinis. L'affermazione mi trova concorde, specialmente considerando che, fino dalle prime introduzioni, questi pesci erano considerati sottospecie e denominati Gambusia affinis holbrooki. In seguito molti autori hanno omesso il nome sottospecifico e, descrivendo le popolazioni osservate, le hanno indicate col nome scientifico di Gambusia affinis. Inoltre in assenza di dati ottenuti con analisi genetiche e molecolari, il riconoscimento delle due specie risulta molto difficile. Ciò detto non può essere totalmente esclusa la presenza, a seguito di introduzioni, di piccole popolazioni acclimatate di Gambusia affinis nelle acque europee.

 

 

Fonti bibliografiche principali - Kottelat M. and J. Freyhof 2007. Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Kottelat, Cornol, Switzerland and Freyof, Berlin, Germany. Pagina 482-483.

 

 

Distribuzione originaria di Gambusia holbrooki secondo IUCN

 

 

Specie introdotta in funzione di lotta biologica alla malaria nelle aree paludose di gran parte del globo. In Europa è diffusa in acque salmastre e paludi del bacino del Mar Mediterraneo ed in aree della costa atlantica francese.

 

 

Introduzioni di Gambusia holbrooki
Periodo Provenienza Paese ospite Acclimatazione

non conosciuto

ignota

Rodriguez

si

non conosciuto

USA

Armenia

si

non conosciuto

ignota

Bulgaria

si

non conosciuto

ignota

Kenia

si

non conosciuto

ignota

Mauritius

non conosciuta

non conosciuto

ignota

Portogallo

si

non conosciuto

ignota

Reunion

non conosciuta

non conosciuto

ignota

Russia

si

non conosciuto

ignota

Singapore

si

non conosciuto

ignota

Spagna

si

non conosciuto

Messico

Armenia

si

non conosciuto

Cuba

Armenia

si

1920 - 1929

ignota

Turchia

si

1930 - 1939

USA

Turkmenistan

si

1922

ignota

Italia centrale

si

1926

ignota

Australia

si

1927

USA

Francia

non conosciuta

1928

probabilmente Italia

India, Kashmir

si

1929

ignota

Madagascar

si

1938

Italia

Etiopia

probabile

1966

ignota

Iran

si

1966

ignota

Iraq

si

1966

ignota

Siria

si

 

 

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