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Gasterosteus aculeatus, Linnaeus 1758


 

Nomi comuni esteri - Francese - Arselet, Cordonnier, Crève-valet, Épinart, Épinglet, Épinoche, Épinoche à trois épines, Estancelin, Estranglo cat, Spinaubé, Spinavaou, Stichling. Spagna - Espinocho, Espinós, Espinosillo, Espinoso. Portogallo - Esgana-gata, Esganagata, Espinhela, Peixe-espinho. Grecia - Agathero. Albania - Gjëmbaçi, Peshk koçkuni. Inglese -  Threespined Stickleback, Banstickle, Barnystickle, Barnytickle, Branchy, Branstickle, Burnstickle, Common stickleback, Cushy, Doctor, Eastern stickleback, European stickleback, Jacksharp, New York stickleback, Pinfish, Prickley, Prickly, Prickly, Prickly back, Santa Ana Stickleback, Saw-finned stickleback, Spanicle, Spannistickle, Spanny, Spannytickle, Spantickle, Sparnicle, Sparny, Sparnytickle, Spawn, Spawnykettle, Spawnytickle, Stickleback, Thornback, Thorny back, Threespine Stickleback, Tiddler, Twospine stickleback. Galles - Crothell dri phigyn. Irlanda - Snathaid mhara, Agathero. Tedesco - Dreistachliger Stichling, Großer Stichling, Rotzbarsch, Seestichling, Stachel de butz, Stachelbauch, Stachele, Stachelfisch, Stechbüttel, Stecherling, Stechert, Steckbedel, Steckbüdel, Steckelbars, Steckelstange, Steckker, Steckling, Stichling. Olanda - Stekelbaars, Driedoornige stekelbaars. Danimarca - Trepigget hundestejle. Svezia - Storspigg, Nakenspigg. Norvegia - Trepigget stingsild, Stikling. Isole Faeroe - Beinmurtur, Eldmurtur, Eyrriðasild, Horngeil, Horngeir, Hvasssíl, Kombikk. Islanda - Hornsíli, Itoyo. Finlandia - Kolmipiikki. Estonia - Ogalik, Harilik ogalik, Paljasogalik. Lettonia - Trisadatu stagars. Lituania - Trispygle dygle. Polonia - Ciernik. Federazione Russa - Kolyushka trekhiglaya, Trigolkova koluchka. Ucraina - Trigolkova koluchka. Repubblica Ceca - Koljueka triostna, Koljuška tríostná. Repubblica Slovacca - Pichlavka, Pichlavka siná. Ungheria - Tükes pikós. Slovenia - Zet. Croazia - Koljuška. Serbia - Bodonja. Romania - Ghidrin. Bulgaria - Kedrinka. Turchia - Dikence baligi, Dikence baligi. Iran -  Sehkhareh. Giappone - Hariyo. Cina - Sān cì yú, Ālāsījiā cì yú. Dialetto Inuktitut - Kakelashuk, Kakilaychok, Kakilishek, Kakilusuk, Kakkilasak. Dialetto Alutiiq - Cukilrua'ak.

 

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Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus, 1758. Systema Naturae, Ed. X. (Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata.) Holmiae. Systema Nat. ed. 10 i-ii + 1-824; v. 1 295. Catalogo - Wheeler 1985:43. Sinonimo senior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN valida. Opinioni - Nomenclatura specifica valida come Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758, sottospecie aculeatus, secondo Okada 1961:605, Kawanabe & Mizuno 1989:433, Pietsch et al. 2001:144, Moyle 2002:340, Scharpf 2007:34. Nomenclatura valida come Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758, Secondo Berg 1949:972, Monod 1973:280, Lee et al. 1980:563, Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:128, Ida in Masuda et al. 1984:83, Smith 1986:276, Banister in Whitehead et al. 1986:640, Arnoult 1986:280, Robins & Ray 1986:122, Lelek 1987:267, McAllister 1990:217, Page & Burr 1991:243, Haglund et al. 1992, Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:62, Swift et al. 1993:123, Jenkins & Burkhead 1994:623, Poll & Gosse 1995:109, Coad 1995:26, Zhu 1995:165, Mrakovcic et al. 1995:185, Chereshnev 1996:605, Coad 1996:85, Bianco et al. 1996:56, Cheng & Zhou 1997:233, Kottelat 1997:164, Murdy et al. 1997:135, Kim 1997:386, Nikiforov et al. 1997:330, Reshetnikov et al. 1997:747, Bianco 1997:620, Reshetnikov & Savvaitove 1998:111, Caldecutt & Adams 1998:827, Ahnelt et al. 1998:395, Scott & Crossman 1998:665, Sokolovskaya et al. 1998:9, Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:226, Fuller et al. 1999:334, Lyons et al. 2000:51, Nakabo 2000:513, Sheiko & Fedorov 2000:25, Bogutskaya et al. 2001:46, Caldecutt et al. 2001: 936, Chereshnev et al. 2001:112, Zemnukhov et al. 2001:420, Bilecenoglu et al. 2002:64, Kim & Park 2002:308, Krueger in Collette & Klein-MacPhee 2002:314, Mecklenburg et al. 2002:333, Nakabo 2002:513, Paepke in Bănărescu & Paepke 2002:209, Roe et al. 2002:903, Youn 2002:231, 552, Pichugin et al. 2003:169, Kiyoshi 2003:37, Fedorov et al. 2003:57, Jang et al. 2003:120, Wydoski & Whitney 2003:167, Hanel 2003:61, Alekseyev et al. 2004:54, Bailey et al. 2004:168, Nelson et al. 2004:111, Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:180, Vassilev & Pehlivanov 2005:175, Miller 2006:320, Hanel & Lusk 2005:334, Fricke 2007:28, Fricke et al. 2007:73, Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:492, Vasil'eva 2007:70, McPhail 2007:432, Ninua & Japoshvili 2008:169, Kuiter 2009:322, Møller et al. 2010:50, Esmaeili et al. 2010:375, Mecklenburg et al. 2011:121, Page & Burr 2011:464, Page et al. 2013:113, Bianco 2013:9, Parin et al. 2014:203, Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2015:895, Pietsch & Orr 2015:29, Çiçek et al. 2015:151, Denys et al. 2015:41, Afonso et al. 2016:39, 155, Kells et al. 2016:122, Zhang et al. 2016:192, Dyldin & Orlov 2017:56, Esmaeili et al. 2017:95, Esmaeili et al. 2018. Località tipo - Europa. Tipo - Nessuno. Sintipi - Zool. Soc. Lond. 29 (mezza pelle sinistra), 30 - 31 (due mezze pelli destre).

Gasterosteus atkinsii Bean, 1879. Description of an apparently new species of Gasterosteus (G. atkinsii) from the Schoodic Lakes, Maine. Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 2 (n° 71): 67-69. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758, secondo Monod 1973:283. Località tipo - Laghi Schoodic, Maine, U.S.A.. Tipo - Nessuno. Sintipi - USNM 22492 (6, ora 5).

Gasterosteus atkinsi Bean, 1879. Proc. U. S. Natl. Mus. v. 2 (n° 71) 67. Errore ortografico, nomenclatura ICZN non valida.

Gasterosteus biaculeatus Mitchill, 1815. The fishes of New York described and arranged. Transactions of the Literary and Philosophical Society of New York v. 1: 355-492, Pls. 1-6. Non sembra una descrizione originale, ma dell'identificazione di Gasterosteus biaculeatus di Shaw, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758, secondo Monod 1973:281, Smith 1986:277. Località tipo - New York, U.S.A.. Tipo - Nessun esemplare noto.

Gasterosteus biarmatus Krynicki 1840. In Nordmann. Observations sur la fauna pontique. In: A. de Démidoff. Voyage dans la Russie méridionale et la Crimée. Vol. III. Paris. Voyage Russie Mérid. 353-635; 381. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758, sottospecie aculeatus, secondo Okada 1961:605. Sinonimo di Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758, secondo Berg 1949:973, Paepke in Bănărescu & Paepke 2002:209. Località tipo - Lagune vicino a Tarkanckut, Crimea. Tipo - Nessun esemplare noto.

Gasterosteus bispinosus Walbaum, 1792. Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium. In quibus systema totum ichthyologiae proponitur cum classibus, ordinibus, generum characteribus, specierum differentiis, observationibus plurimis. Redactis speciebus 242 ad genera 52. Ichthyologiae pars III. Ant. Ferdin. Rose, Grypeswaldiae. Artedi Piscium [i-viii] + 1-723; Pt. 3 450. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758, secondo Monod 1973:280. Località tipo: New York, U.S.A. Tipo - Nessun esemplare noto.

Gasteracanthus cataphractus Pallas, 1814. Zoographia Rosso-Asiatica, sistens omnium animalium in extenso Imperio Rossico et adjacentibus maribus observatorum recensionem, domicilia, mores et descriptiones anatomen atque icones plurimorum. 3 vol.. Petropoli. Zool. Rosso-Asiatica i-vii + 1-428 + index (I-CXXV); v. 3 229. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758, sottospecie aculeatus, secondo Okada 1961:605. Sinonimo di Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758, secondo Berg 1949:972, Monod 1973:281, Reshetnikov & Savvaitove 1998:111, Mecklenburg et al. 2002:333. Località tipo - Kamchatka, Russia.

Gasterosteus cataphractus Pallas, 1814. Zool. Rosso-Asiatica i-vii + 1-428 + index (I-CXXV); v. 3 229. Sinonimo junior, nuova combinazione, nomenclatura ICZN non valida.

Gasterosteus cuvieri Girard 1850. In Storer. Observations on the fishes of Nova Scotia and Labrador, with descriptions of new species. Boston Journal of Natural History v. 6: 247-270, Pls. 7-8. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758, secondo Monod 1973:282, Smith 1986:277. Località tipo - Bras d'Or e Red Bay, Labrador, Canada. Tipo - Nessuno. Non-tipi - MCZ 32812 (100), USNM 120288 [ex MCZ 32812] (6).

Gasterosteus dekayi Ayres, 1855. (Descriptions of new species of Californian fishes). A number of short notices read before the Society at several meetings in 1855. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 1) v. 1 (pt 1): 23-77. Basato su Gasterosteus biaculeatus di DeKay. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758, secondo Monod 1973:282.

Gasterosteus dimidiatus Reinhardt, 1837. Ichthyologiske bidrag til den Grönlandske fauna [Ichthyological contributions to the fauna of Greenland]. Indledning, indeholdende tillaeg og forandringer i den fabriciske fortegnelse paa Grönlandske hvirveldyr. Det Kongelige Danske videnskabernes selskabs naturvidenskabelige og mathematiske afhandlinger v. 7: 83-196, Pls. 1-8. A p. 32, 55 & 111 dell'inserto. Reinhardt si riferisce a Fauna groenlandica Nr. 122 (Fabricius 1780:169-170), dove è citato Gasterosteus aculeatus. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758, secondo Monod 1973:281. Località tipo - Groenlandia. Tipo - Nessuno. Sintipi - ZMUC.

Gasterosteus inopinatus Girard, 1854. Observations upon a collection of fishes made on the Pacific coast of the United States, by Lieut. W. P. Trowbridge, U. S. A., for the museum of the Smithsonian Institution. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 7: 142-156. Catalogo - Bertin & Estève 1950:37. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758, sottospecie aculeatus, secondo Okada 1961:605. Sinonimo di Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758, secondo Monod 1973:282. Località tipo - Una laguna di acqua dolce circa un miglio dopo Presidio, California, U.S.A.. Tipo - Nessuno. Sintipi - MCZ 6701 (1), MNHN 0000-0300 [ex USNM] (2).

Gasterosteus insculptus Richardson, 1855. Fishes (pp. 347-376, Pls. 23-30). In Sir E. Belcher: The last of the Arctic voyages in search of Sir J. Franklin. Vol. 2. Last Arctic Voyage i-vii + 1-419; Pl. 25. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758, sottospecie aculeatus, secondo Okada 1961:605. Sinonimo di Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758, secondo Monod 1973:282. Località tipo - Northumberland Sound, Groenlandia. Tipo -  Olotipo? BMNH.

Gasterosteus teraculeatus Lacepède, 1801. Histoire naturelle des poissons. Hist. Nat. Poiss. i-lxvi + 1-558; v. 3 295, 296. Status: sinonimo junior, nomenclatura non valida. Opinioni - Status: sinonimo junior, nomenclatura non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758, per Monod 1973:281, Kottelat 1997:163, Paepke in Bănărescu & Paepke 2002:209. Tipo: nuovo nome non necessario per  Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758.

Gasterosteus trachurus Cuvier, 1829. In Cuvier & Valenciennes. Hist. Nat. Poiss. v. 4 481, 487 Pl. 98 (fig. 1). Status: sinonimo junior, nomenclatura non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758, sottospecie aculeatus, secondo Okada 1961:605; sinonimo di Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758, secondo Berg 1949:972, Monod 1973:281, Lelek 1987:267, Kottelat 1997:164, Reshetnikov et al. 1997:747, Reshetnikov & Savvaitove 1998:111, Scott & Crossman 1998:665, Paepke in Bănărescu & Paepke 2002:209. Località tipo: Francia; Germania. Tipo: nessuno. Sintipi: ?NMW 6918 (1).

Gasterosteus noveboracensis Cuvier, 1829. In Cuvier & Valenciennes. Hist. Nat. Poiss. v. 4 502 Pl. 98 (fig. 3). Status: sinonimo junior, nomenclatura non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758, per Monod 1973:281. Catalogo: Bertin & Estève 1950:35. Nomenclatura comparsa inizialmente soltanto come nome in Cuvier 1829:170. Località tipo: New York, U.S.A. Tipo: MNHN 7074.

Gasterosteus spinulosus Yarrell, 1835. (ex Jenyns). Jenyns, L. 1835. A manual of British vertebrate animals: or descriptions of all the animals belonging to the classes, Mammalia, Aves, Reptilia, Amphibia, and Pisces... Pitt Press, Cambridge. Manual Brit. Vertebrates i-xxxii + 1-559; 350. Status: nomenclatura soggetta a discussione, non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758, secondo Monod 1973:281, Paepke in Bănărescu & Paepke 2002:209 come spinosus. Sinonimo provvisorio di Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758, secondo Kottelat 1997:164. Località tipo: Edinburgo, Scozia. Tipo: non è noto nessun esemplare tipo.

Gasterosteus ponticus Nordmann, 1840. Voyage Russie Mérid. 380, 613 Pl. 3 (fig. 11). Status: sinonimo junior, nomenclatura non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758, sottospecie aculeatus, per Okada 1961:605; sinonimo di Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758, per Berg 1949:972, Monod 1973:281, Kottelat 1997:164, Paepke in Bănărescu & Paepke 2002:209. Catalogo: Bertin & Estève 1950:36. Località tipo: Tauria, Mar Nero Tipo: nessuno. Sintipi: MNHN 7098 (3), NMW 77244 (4).

Gasterosteus microcephalus (non Girard, 1854). Status: errore d'identificazione, nomenclatura non valida.

Gasterosteus serratus Ayres, 1855. [Description of new fishes from California.] (Minutes of Academy meetings were printed in "The Pacific" (a newspaper) shortly after each meeting. New species date to publication in The Pacific. Dates of publication are given in each species account). The Pacific; v. 4 (no. 22) [2] col. 6. Status: sinonimo junior, nomenclatura non valida; nomenclatura apparentemente occupata in precedenza da Gasterosteus serratus Forster 1794. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758, sottospecie aculeatus, secondo Okada 1961:605; sinonimo di Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758, per Monod 1973:282. Catalogo: Bertin & Estève 1950:37. Località tipo: San Francisco, California, U.S.A. Tipo: probabilmente perduto. Non-types: MNHN 0299 [ex USNM] (1).

 

 

Note sulla sistematica - Le popolazioni del Mar Baltico e del Mar Nero non sono state ancora comparate in dettaglio. I dati molecolari e le osservazioni morfologiche preliminari suggeriscono una probabile presenza di specie distinte.

 

 

Fonti bibliografiche principali - Kottelat M. and J. Freyhof 2007. Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Kottelat, Cornol, Switzerland and Freyof, Berlin, Germany. Pagina 492-493.

 

 

Distribuzione originaria di Gastrosteus aculeatus secondo IUCN

 

 

La carta di IUCN appare imprecisa e lacunosa. L'area di diffusione di Gasterosteus aculeatus comprende le acque interne e costiere di Eurasia, Islanda, Asia orientale ed America settentrionale. In Nord America, la specie è presente lungo la costa occidentale dall'Alaska alla Baia di California e, lungo la costa orientale, dalla sponda occidentale della Baia di Hudson fino a Chesapeake Bay in Virginia, dove si spinge anche all'interno (Lago Ontario incluso). A volte si incontra in mare aperto. La specie è stata introdotta con acclimatazione in alcune aree di California, Massachusetts, dei Grandi Laghi (laghi Huron, Michigan, Erie e Superiore). In Eurasia è presente lungo le coste settentrionali del Mare del Nord (Scozia e Scandinavia), in Islanda, nel Mar Bianco, in Irlanda e Gran Bretagna, sponde meridionali del Mar Baltico e nei bacini dei fiumi Oder e Vistola, nel bacino del Mar Nero lungo le coste settentrionali e nei bacini dal Danubio al fiume Kuban. Assente dalle acque interne della Finlandia, ad eccezione delle zone a nord del 68° parallelo. Esistono zone di sovrapposizione e ibridazione con nell'English Channel, Mare del Nord meridionale, Mar Baltico e bacini afferenti. G. aculeatus è stato introdotto nelle acque dell'Italia settentrionale, dove si sovrappone a G. gymnurus.

 

 

Introduzioni di Gasterosteus aculeatus
Periodo Provenienza Paese ospite Acclimatazione

non conosciuto

fiume Weser

Wilmington, USA

non conosciuta

non conosciuto

fiume San Lorenzo

Baltimora, USA

non conosciuta

non conosciuto

Olanda

Baltimora, USA

non conosciuta

non conosciuto

Belgio

Baltimora, USA

non conosciuta

non conosciuto

ignota

Slovacchia

si

non conosciuto

ignota

Italia

si

non conosciuto

ignota

Iran

probabile

non conosciuto

ignota

Germania

non conosciuta

non conosciuto

ignota

Repubblica Ceca

si

non conosciuto

ignota

Austria

si

1956

Austria

Ungheria

probabile

 

 

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Akita Prefecture, 2002. Threatened Wildlife of Akita Prefecture, Animals. Akita Prefecture, Akita:

http://www.pref.akita.lg.jp/www/contents/1135148036456, http://www.pref.akita.lg.jp/www/contents/1135148036456/files/fishes.pdf.

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Allen, J.R.M. and R.J. Wootton, 1984. Temporal patterns in diet and rate of food consumption of the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) in Llyn Frongoch, an upland Welsh lake. Freshwat. Biol. 14:335-346.

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Anonymous, 1996. Fish collection database of the University of British Columbia Fish Museum Fish Museum. University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.

Anonymous, 1997. Fish registrations within the museum database of the Vertebrate Section of the Royal Museum for Central Africa. MRAC, Tervuren, Belgium.

Anonymous, 1999. Fish collection database of the Natural History Museum, London (formerly British Museum of Natural History (BMNH)). Natural History Museum, London (formerly British Museum of Natural History (BMNH)).

Anonymous, 1999. Systematic list of Estonian fishes. World Wide Web Electronic Publication, 14 January 2000.

Anonymous, 2000. Fish collection database of the J.L.B. Smith Institute of Ichthyology, Grahamstown, South Africa. J.L.B. Smith Institute of Ichthyology, Grahamstown, South Africa.

Anonymous, 2000. Systematisk liste over norske fisk registert pr. 1997:

http://alun.uio.no/zoomus/generell/avdelinger/fisk/fiskeliste.html.

Anonymous, 2000. The icthyological collection of the Zoological Museum Hamburg (ZMH). Division of Ichthyology and Herpetology, Zoological Museum Hamburg (ZMH).

Anonymous, 2001. Fish collection database of the National Museum of Natural History (Smithsonian Institution). Smithsonian Institution-Division of Fishes.

Anonymous, 2001. Fish collection database of the Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen. Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen.

Anonymous, 2002. Fish collection database of the American Museum of Natural History. American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West, NY 10024-5192, USA.

Anonymous, 2002. Fish collection of the Royal British Columbia Museum. Royal British Columbia Museum, 675 Belleville Street, Victoria BC, Canada V8V 1X4.

Anonymous, 2002. Freshwater fish collection database of the National Science Museum. National Science Museum, 3-23-1 Hyakunin-cho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-0073, Japan.

Anonymous, 2003. Fish collection of the Royal Ontario Museum. Royal Ontario Museum.

Aomori Prefecture, 2010. Red Data Book of Aomori 2010. Revised Version. Aomori Prefecture, Aomori:

http://www.pref.aomori.lg.jp/nature/nature/reddatabook.html. http://www.pref.aomori.lg.jp/soshiki/kankyo/shizen/files/2010-0326-1210.pdf.

Arkhipchuk, V.V., 1999. Chromosome database. Database of Dr. Victor Arkhipchuk.

Armstrong, J.L., D.A. Armstrong and S.B. Mathews, 1995. Food habits of estuarine staghorn sculpin, Leptocottus armatus, with focus on consumption of juvenile Dungeness crab, Cancer magister. Fish. Bull. 93:456-470.

Arnoult, J., 1986. Gasterosteidae. p. 280. In J. Daget, J.-P. Gosse and D.F.E. Thys van den Audenaerde (eds.) Check-list of the freshwater fishes of Africa (CLOFFA). ISNB, Brussels; MRAC, Tervuren; and ORSTOM, Paris. Vol. 2.

ASIH, American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists, 1984. Ontogeny and systematics of fishes. Based on an international symposium dedicated to the memory of Elbert Halvor Ahlstrom, 15-18 August 1983, La Jolla, California. Spec. Publ. Am. Soc. Ichthyol. Herpetol. 1:ix, 760 p.

Bailey, R.M., W.C. Latta and G.R. Smith, 2004. An atlas of Michigan fishes with keys and illustrations for their identifi-cation. Miscellaneous Publications, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan N° 192: i-iv; 1-215.

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Bakhvalova, A.E., T.S. Ivanova, M.V. Ivanov, A.S. Demchuk, E.A. Movchan and D.L. Lajus, 2016. Long-term changes in the role of threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) in the White Sea: predatory fish consumption reflects fluctuating stickleback abundance during the last century. Evolutionary Ecology Research 17(3):317-334.

Bănărescu, P., 1964. Pisces - Osteichthyes (pesti ganoizi si osisi). Editura Academiei Republicii Populare Romîne, Bucuresti. 962 p.

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