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Spinarello nordico,

Pungitius pungitius (Linnaeus 1758)


 

Nomi comuni esteri - Francese - Épinoche à neuf épines, Épinochette, Petite épinoche, Marichaud. Portogallo - Espinho. Inglese - Ninespine stickleback, Nine-spined stickleback, Stickleback, Barnstickle, Branchy, Branstickle, Pinfish, Prickley, Prickly, Prickly back, Spanicle, Spannistickle, Spanny, Spannystickle, Spantickle, Sparnicle, Sparny, Sparnytickle, Spawnykettle, Spawnytickle, Thornback. Galles - Crothell naw pigyn. Irlanda - Snathaid mhara. Tedesco - Kleiner Stichling, Neunstacheliger, Seestichling Stichling, Stachel de butz, Stachele, Stachelfisch, Stachelbauch, Stechbüttel, Stecherling, Stechert, Steckbedel, Steckbüdel, Steckelbars, Steckelstange, Steckling, Steekerling, Steekling, Steigbügel, Stickelbars, Stichbeutel, Stichlinsky, Zwergstichling. Olanda - Tiendoornige stekelbaars. Danimarca - Nipigget hundestejle. Norvegia - Småstikling, Nipigget stingsild. Svezia - Småspigg. Finlandia - Kymmenpiikki. Estonia - Harilik luukarits, Luukarits. Lettonia - Devinadatu stagars. Lituania - Devynspygle dygle. Polonia - Cierniczek. Federazione Russa - Devyatiiglaya kolyushka, Malaja koliushka, Malaja koliushka. Romania - Osar. Turchia - Kücük-dikence baligi. Corea - Cheong-gasigogi. Cina - Bā jí duō cì yú. Giappone - Ibara-tomiyo, Kitano-tomiyo.

 

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Pungitius pungitius (Linnaeus, 1758). Systema Nat. ed. 10 v. 1 296. Sinonimo senior, nuova combinazione, nomenclatura ICZN valida.

Gasterosteus pungitius Linnaeus, 1758. Systema Naturae, Ed. X. (Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata.) Holmiae. Systema Nat. ed. 10 i-ii + 1-824; v. 1 296. Catalogo - Wheeler 1985:44. Sinonimo senior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Nomenclatura specifica valida come Pungitius pungitius (Linnaeus 1758), sottospecie pungitius secondo Okada 1961:615, Kawanabe & Mizuno 1989:445, Sheiko & Fedorov 2000:25, Pietsch et al. 2001:144; nomenclatura valida come Pungitius pungitius (Linnaeus 1758) secondo Berg 1949:965, Monod 1973:284, Lee et al. 1980:566, Ida in Masuda et al. 1984:83, Smith 1986:277, Banister in Whitehead et al. 1986:642, Robins & Ray 1986:122, Lelek 1987:271, Scott & Scott 1988:343, McAllister 1990:219, Page & Burr 1991:242, Haglund et al. 1992, Chereshnev 1996:605, Keivany et al. 1997:558, Kottelat 1997:167, Kim 1997:391, Reshetnikov et al. 1997:747, Reshetnikov & Savvaitove 1998:112, Scott & Crossman 1998:671, Keivany & Nelson 1998:458 con sottospecie, Fuller et al. 1999:336, Keivany & Nelson 2000:117, Lyons et al. 2000:42, Nakabo 2000:514, Matsuura et al. 2000:197, Zemnukhov et al. 2001:420, Bogutskaya et al. 2001:46, Chereshnev et al. 2001:113, Mecklenburg et al. 2002:334, Paepke in Bănărescu & Paepke 2002:277, Kim & Park 2002:313, Nakabo 2002:514, Youn 2002:231, 554, Kolpakov 2002:708, Kolpakov 2003:847, Fedorov et al. 2003:57, Pichugin et al. 2004:15, Alekseyev et al. 2004:54, Bailey et al. 2004:169, Nelson et al. 2004:111, Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:181, Fricke 2007:28, Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:498, Scharpf 2007:34, McPhail 2007:440, Bogutskaya et al. 2008:350, Mecklenburg et al. 2011:121, Page & Burr 2011:462, Page et al. 2013:113, Parin et al. 2014:205, Afonso et al. 2016:39, 259, Kells et al. 2016:122, Takahashi et al. 2016:49, Dyldin & Orlov 2017:57, Denys et al. 2017:14, Romanov et al. 2017:825. Località tipo - Europa. Tipo - Nessuno. Sintipi - Linn. Soc. Lond. 34-35 (2, metà pelli sinistre).

Gasteracanthus pungitius (Linnaeus, 1758). Systema Nat. ed. 10 v. 1 296. Sinonimo senior, nuova combinazione, nomen-clatura ICZN non valida.

Pygosteus pungitius (Linnaeus, 1758). Systema Nat. ed. 10 v. 1 296. Sinonimo senior, nuova combinazione, nomenclatura ICZN non valida.

Pungitius pungitius pungitius (Linnaeus, 1758). Systema Nat. ed. 10 v. 1 296. Sinonimo senior, nuova combinazione con indicazione sottospecifica, nomenclatura ICZN non valida.

Gasterosteus (Gasterostea) blanchardi Sauvage, 1874. Révision des espèces du groupe des Épinoches. Nouvelles Archives du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris v. 10: 5-36, Pl. 1. Catalogo - Bertin & Estève 1950:40. Sinonimo junior, combina-zione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Pungitius pungitius (Linnaeus 1758), secondo Monod 1973:284. Sinonimo di Pungitius pungitius (Linnaeus 1758), sottospecie occidentalis (Cuvier 1829), secondo Keivany & Nelson 2000. Località tipo - New York, U.S.A.. Tipo - Nessuno. Sintipi - MNHN 0000-7111 (2) New York, 0000-9383 to 9385 (20); USNM 21139 (ex MNHN) (1).

Gasterosteus pungitius brachypoda Bean, 1879. Contributions to the natural history of Arctic America, made in connection with the Howgate polar expedition (1877-78). Fishes collected in Cumberland Gulf and Disko Bay. Bulletin of the United States National Museum v. 15: 107-138. Catalogo - McAllister 1965:10. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Pungitius pungitius (Linnaeus 1758), sottospecie pungitius, secondo Okada 1961:616. Sinonimo di Pungitius pungitius (Linnaeus 1758), secondo Berg 1949:966, Monod 1973:284. Sinonimo di Pungitius pungitius (Linnaeus 1758), sottospecie occidentalis (Cuvier 1829), secondo Keivany & Nelson 2000:118. Località tipo - Oosooadlin Mountain, Cumberland Gulf, Greenland, elevation 1500 feet. Tipo - Nessuno. Sintipi - NMC 58-13 [ex USNM 21773 and Victoria Mem. Mus. 154] (1); USNM 21738 (1), 21766 (1), 21768 (1), 21771 (1), 21773 (1), 21773a (1), 21773c (1), 21773d (1).

Gasterosteus burgundianus Blanchard, 1866. Les poissons dese eaux douces de la France. Paris. i-xvi + 1-656. Catalogo - Bertin & Estève 1950:39. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Pungitius pungitius (Linnaeus 1758), secondo Monod 1973:284, Paepke in Bănărescu & Paepke 2002:277, Denys et al. 2017:14. Sinonimo di Pungitius laevis (Cuvier 1829), secondo Kottelat 1997:166. Sinonimo di Pungitius pungitius (Linnaeus 1758), sottospecie laevis (Cuvier 1829), secondo Keivany & Nelson 2000:118. Località tipo - Dijon, Côte d'Or, France. Tipo - Nessuno. Sintipi - MNHN 0000-7103 [or 7109] (5).

Gasterosteus concinnus Richardson, 1837. The Fish. In: Fauna Boreali-Americana; or the zoology of the northern parts of British America: containing descriptions of the objects of natural history collected on the late northern land expeditions, under the command of Sir John Franklin, R.N. J. Bentley, London. Part 3: i-xv + 1-327, Pls. 74-97. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758, secondo Monod 1973:281. Sinonimo di Pungitius pungitius (Linnaeus 1758), secondo Monod 1973:284, Scott & Crossman 1998:674. Sinonimo di Pungitius pungitius (Linnaeus 1758), sottospecie occidentalis (Cuvier 1829), secondo Keivany & Nelson 2000:118. Località tipo -  Saskatchewan (53°N) fino al Great Bear Lake (65°N), Canada.  Tipo - Nessuno. Sintipi - (molti) collocazione ignota.

Gasterosteus dekayi Agassiz, 1850. Lake Superior: its physical character, vegetation, and animals, compared with those of other and similar regions. By Louis Agassiz. With a narrative of the tour, by J. Elliot Cabot. And contributions by other scientific gentlemen. Gould, Kendall and Lincoln, Boston. i-x + 9-428, frontespizio + Pls. 1-16. Sinonimo junior, combina-zione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Pungitius pungitius (Linnaeus 1758), secondo Monod 1973:284. Sinonimo di Pungitius pungitius (Linnaeus 1758), sottospecie occidentalis (Cuvier 1829), secondo Keivany & Nelson 2000:118. Località tipo - New York and Massachusetts, U.S.A. Tipo - Nessuno. Sintipi - Nessuno. Basato su fonti di letteratura.

Gasterosteus globiceps Sauvage, 1874. Révision des espèces du groupe des Épinoches. Nouvelles Archives du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris v. 10: 5-36, Pl. 1. Catalogo - Bertin & Estève 1950:40. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Pungitius pungitius (Linnaeus 1758), secondo Monod 1973:284, Paepke in Bănărescu & Paepke 2002:277 con riserva. provvisoriamente sinonimo di Pungitius laevis (Cuvier 1829), secondo Kottelat 1997:166. Sinonimo di Pungitius pungitius (Linnaeus 1758), sottospecie occidentalis (Cuvier 1829), secondo Keivany & Nelson 2000:118. Località tipo -  Viene citato il Nord America, ma apparentemente è errata. Tipo - Nessuno. Sintipi - MNHN 0000-4081 (2).

Gasterosteus mainensis Storer, 1837. Description of a new species of the genus Gasterosteus. Boston Journal of Natural History v. 1 (n° 4) (art. 23): 464-465. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Pungitius pungitius (Linnaeus 1758), secondo Monod 1973:284. Sinonimo di Pungitius pungitius (Linnaeus 1758), sottospecie occidentalis (Cuvier 1829), secondo Keivany & Nelson 2000:118. Località tipo - Kennebeck County, Maine, U.S.A.  Tipo - Nessuno. Sintipi - Nessuno.

Gasterosteus nebulosus Agassiz, 1850. Lake Superior: its physical character, vegetation, and animals, compared with those of other and similar regions. By Louis Agassiz. With a narrative of the tour, by J. Elliot Cabot. And contributions by other scientific gentlemen. Gould, Kendall and Lincoln, Boston. i-x + 9-428, frontispiece + Pls. 1-16. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Pungitius pungitius (Linnaeus 1758), secondo Monod 1973:284. Sinonimo di Pungitius pungitius (Linnaeus 1758), sottospecie occidentalis (Cuvier 1829), secondo Keivany & Nelson 2000:118. Località tipo - Foce del Pic River, Lago Superiore. Tipo - Nessuno. Sintipi - MCZ 6696 (10, now 8), ?MCZ 58765 (2), USNM 120414 [ex MCZ 6696] (2).

Gasterosteus occidentalis Cuvier, 1829. In Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829.Histoire naturelle des poissons. Tome quatrième. Livre quatrième. Des acanthoptérygiens à joue cuirassée. F.G. Levrault, Paris. v. 4: i-xxvi + 2 pp. + 1-518, Pls. 72-99, 97 bis. Catalogo - Bertin & Estève 1950:39. Vedere Mecklenburg et al. 2002:334. Nome precedentemente occupato da Gaste-rosteus occidentalis Linnaeus 1758. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Pungitius pungitius (Linnaeus 1758), secondo Monod 1973:284, Smith 1986:278. Sinonimo di Pungitius pungitius (Linnaeus 1758), ma valida sottospecie secondo Keivany & Nelson 2000:118, Krueger in Collette & Klein-MacPhee 2002:319, Scharpf 2007:35. Località tipo - Newfoundland. Tipo - Olotipo (unico): MNHN 0000-7112.

 

 

Note sulla sistematica - Haglund et al. (1992) esaminando le variazioni allozimiche dello spinarello nordico, conclude le popolazioni dell'America settentrionale appartengano ad una specie (P. occidentalis), dalle popolazioni europee di P. pungitius. Sempre Haglund et al. (1992) considera le specie paleartiche P. platygaster, P. tymensis, e P. sinensis come specie distinte, non ritenendo P. sinensis conspecifica di P. pungitius. Per questo motivo IUCN, restringendo l'uso del nome alle sole popolazioni euroasiatiche, non segnala P. pungitius come presente in Nord America. Pertanto dai sinonimi dovrebbero essere escluse tutte le popolazioni nord americane e quelle riconducibili a P. platygaster, P. tymen-sis, e P. sinensis. Per maggiori informazioni sulla tassonomia dei Pungitius asiatici vedere Haglund et al. (1992).

 

 

Fonti bibliografiche principali - Kottelat M. and J. Freyhof 2007. Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Kottelat, Cornol, Switzerland and Freyof, Berlin, Germany. Pagina 498-499.

 

 

Distribuzione di Pungitius pungitius secondo IUCN

 

 

L'area di distribuzione comprende le aree costiere dell'Europa settentrionale, dall'Olanda al nord della Russia, inclusa la Norvegia meridionale ed il bacino del Mar Baltico. Comune nelle acque interne della Scandinavia orientale, di Europa nord orientale. Diffusa nei bacini dei fiumi afferenti al Mar Bianco ed al Mare di Barents, dal fiume Onega al fiume Kara. Raggiunge ad est la Siberia ed il Giappone, ma deve essere dimostrato che le popolazioni del'Asia orientale siano conspecifiche di quelle europee. Introdotta in Austria, dove sembra essersi acclimatata.

 

 

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