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Branzino o spigola,

Dicentrarchus labrax (Linnaeus, 1758)


 

Nomi dialettali italiani - Veneto - Baicolo, Branzin, Variolo, Brancin. Liguria - Luasso, Lovazzo. Toscana - Ragno, Branzino, Spigola. Lazio - Spigola, Lupo. Campania - Spinola, Boccabianca. Calabria - Spinala. Puglia - Lupo, Ragnetta, Spinola, Spina. Marche ed Abruzzo - Varolo, Spinarolo, Spinola. Sardegna - Lupu, Arranassa, Arranzolu.

 

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Nomi comuni esteri - Francese - Bar, Bar commun, Bar européen, Bar franc, Bog, Brigue, Drelique, Gutgareo, Loubas negre, Loubine, Loup, Loup de mer, Loupassou, Lubin, Luvassu, Pigne. Inglese - European seabass, Bass, Sea bass, Capemouth, Common bass, European bass, King of the mullets, Sea dace, Sea perch, White mullet. Tedesco - Gemeiner Seebarsch, Gemeiner Wolfsbarsch, Meerbarsch, Salmbarsch, Seebarsch, Seewolf, Wolfsbarsch. Spagna - Llobaro, Llobarro, Llobina, Llop, Baieta, Baila, Cherne, Llop, Llubina, Lubaro, Lubina, Mero, Pintat, Robaliza. Portogallo - Chalico, Robalo, Robalo-legítimo. Galles - Draenogyn môr. Irlanda - An bhas, Doingean. Olanda - Zeebaars. Danimarca - Almindelig Bars, Bars, Havbars. Svezia - Havsabborre. Norvegia - Havabbor, Havâbor, Havaborre. Finlandia - Meribassi. Islanda - Vartari. Grecia - Lavraki, Lavráki, Lavrakópoulo. Albania - Bafa (femra), Lapri (levrek i vogël), Lavraku, Levreku. Croazia - Agac, Brancin, Levrek, Lubin, Smudut, Smudut. Slovenia - Brancin, Luben. Serbia - Kanjci, Kirnje, Lubin. Montenegro - Smudut. Romania - Lavrac, Lup de mare, Lup-de-mare. Bulgaria - Labrak, Lavrak. Estonia - Harilik huntahven. Polonia - Labraks. Federazione Russa - Okunʹ morskoĭ. Ucraina - Lavraki. Israele - Lavraq, Lavraz, Nakod. Turchia - Çizgili mercan, Levrek, Levrek baligi. Libano - Birrâq, Ghimbâr. Egitto - Karous oroubi. Libia - Garous. Algeria - Gonfar, Kaross, Karous, Liobarro. Tunisia - Karus. Giappone - Hata. Cinese - Láng lú (狼鱸 狼鲈), Shé chǐ lú (舌齒鱸 舌齿鲈).

 

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Dicentrarchus labrax (Linnaeus, 1758). Systema Naturae, Ed. X. vol. 1: i-ii + 1-824. Sinonimo senior, nuova combinazione, nomenclatura ICZN valida.

Perca labrax Linnaeus 1758. Systema Naturae, Ed. X. Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Holmiae. Systema Naturae, Ed. X. v. 1: i-ii + 1-824. Catalogo - immagini dei tipi - Wheeler 1958:218. Sinonimo senior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Nomenclatura specifica valida come Morone labrax (Linnaeus 1758), vedere Berg 1949:1013, Ninua & Japoshvili 2008:170. Nomenclatura specifica valida come Dicentrarchus labrax (Linnaeus 1758), vedere Tortonese 1973:357, Dor 1984:97, Tortonese in Whitehead et al. 1986:794, Daget & Smith 1986:299, 300, Smith 1990:692, Bauchot in Lévêque et al. 1992:669, Poll & Gosse 1995:123, Goren & Dor 1994:25, Coad 1996:85, Kottelat 1997:171, Arruda 1997:81, Reshetnikov et al. 1997:748, Popova 1998:115, Azeroual et al. 2000:20, Bilecenoglu et al. 2002:75, Roe et al. 2002:903, Parin 2003:S2, Vassilev & Pehlivanov 2005:176, Fricke 2007:26, Fricke et al. 2007:78, Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:520, Vasil'eva 2007:84, Coscia & Mariani 2011:365 (con 3 linee filetiche), Parin et al. 2014:351, Barbieri et al. 2015:99, Çiçek et al. 2015:15, Heemstra in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2353, Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:260, Golani & Fricke 2018:67. Località tipo - Europa meridionale, mar Mediterraneo. Tipo - Nessuno. Sintipi - BMNH 1853.11.12.1 colllezione Gronovius (una pelle).

Sciaena diacantha Bloch, 1792. Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische. Berlin. Naturgeschichte der Ausländischen Fische. v. 6: i-xii + 1-126, Pls. 289-323. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Dicentrarchus labrax (Linnaeus 1758), vedere Daget & Smith 1986:300, Kottelat 1997:171. Località tipo - Mar Mediterraneo. Tipo - Nessuno. Catalogo immagini dei tipi - Paepke 1999:101. A pagina 49 dell'Ittiologia di Bloch, v. 9.

Perca elongata Geoffroy St. Hilaire, 1817. Poissons du Nil, de la mer Rouge et de la Méditerranée. In: Description de l'Egypte ou recueil des observations et des recherches qui ont été faites en Égypte pendant l'expedition de l'Armée français, publié par les ordres de sa Majesté-L'Empereur Napoléon le Grand. (Imprimerie Impériale). Paris. v. 1 (part 1). Pl. 18-27. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Dicentrarchus labrax (Linnaeus 1758), vedere Daget & Smith 1986:300, Smith 1990:692, Kottelat 1997:171. Località tipo - Egitto, mar Mediterraneo. Tipo - Olotipe (unico): irreperibile. Catalogo immagini dei tipi - Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:104.

Labrax linnei Malm, 1877. Göteborgs och Bohusläns fauna, Ryggradsdjuren. Göteborg. Göteborgs och Bohusläns fauna, Ryggradsdjuren.: 1-674, Pls. 1-9. In original scritto Linnéi. Provvisoriamente considerato come sostituzione di nome non necessaria per Perca labrax Linnaeus 1758 (al fine di evitare "Strickland tautonomy"). Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Dicentrarchus labrax (Linnaeus 1758), vedere Daget & Smith 1986:300, Kottelat 1997:171. Località tipo - Svezia. Tipo - Nessuno.

Centropomus lupus Lacepède, 1802. Histoire naturelle des poissons. Histoire naturelle des poissons. v. 4: i-xliv + 1-728, Pl. 1-16. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Dicentrarchus labrax (Linnaeus 1758), vedere Tortonese in Whitehead et al. 1986:794, Smith 1990:692, Kottelat 1997:171. Località tipo - Mare Adriatico; mar Mediterraneo; coste europee dell'Oceano Atlantico. Tipo - Nessuno. Sintipi - Irreperibili. Catalogo immagini dei tipi - Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:103.

Centropomus mullus Lacepède, 1802. Histoire naturelle des poissons. Histoire naturelle des poissons. v. 4: i-xliv + 1-728, Pl. 1-16. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Dicentrarchus labrax (Linnaeus 1758), vedere Kottelat 1997:171. Località tipo - Rouen e Metaihe, Francia. Tipo - Nessun tipo conosciuto. Catalogo immagini dei tipi - Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:103.

Perca punctulata Gmelin, 1789. Caroli a Linné ... Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species; cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Editio decimo tertia, aucta, reformata. 3 vol. in 9 parti. Lipsiae, 1788-93. V. 1 (pt 3): 1033-1516. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Dicentrarchus labrax (Linnaeus 1758), secondo gli autori del "Catalog of Fishes" della California Academy of Sciences. Località tipo - America (a quanto pare per sbaglio).

Perca sinuosa Geoffroy de St. Hilaire, 1817. Poissons du Nil, de la mer Rouge et de la Méditerranée. In: Description de l'Egypte ou recueil des observations et des recherches qui ont été faites en Égypte pendant l'expedition de l'Armée français, publié par les ordres de sa Majesté-L'Empereur Napoléon le Grand. (Imprimerie Impériale). Paris. v. 1 (part 1). Pl. 18-27. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Dicentrarchus labrax (Linnaeus 1758), vedere Daget & Smith 1986:300. Località tipo - Damietta, Egitto, mar Mediterraneo. Tipo - Nessuno. Informazioni sul tipo - Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:104.

Labrax vulgaris Guérin-Méneville, 1829. Iconographie du Règne animal de G. Cuvier ... (1829-44). I. Planches des Animaux Vertébrés. Paris. IV, Poissons: 1-44, Pl. 1-70. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Dicentrarchus labrax (Linnaeus 1758), vedere Daget & Smith 1986:300. Località tipo - Non riportata. Tipo - nessuno.

 

 

Fonti bibliografiche principali - Kottelat M. and J. Freyhof 2007. Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Kottelat, Cornol, Switzerland and Freyof, Berlin, Germany. Pagina 520-521.

 

 

Distribuzione di Dicentrarchus labrax secondo IUCN

 

 

La specie è presente nelle acque marine, salmastre e dolci, lungo le coste e nei bacini dell'Oceano Atlantico orientale (dalla Norvegia centrale alle Canarie e al Senegal) del Mar Mediterraneo e del Mar Nero. Ne è stata tentata senza esito positivo, l'introduzione in Islanda e nella valle del fiume Giordano.

 

 

Introduzioni di Dicentrarchus labrax

Periodo Provenienza Paese ospite Acclimatazione Effetti ecologici
non conosciuto ignota fiume Giordano no nessun dato
1989 Cipro Israele no forse alcuni
1989 Israele (estuari) Israele (interno) no forse alcuni
1994 Francia Islanda no forse alcuni
2001 Grecia Oman no forse alcuni
2002 Grecia Emirati Arabi Uniti no nessuno
2004 Francia Emirati Arabi Uniti no nessuno

 

 

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