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Webmuseum Osteichthyes Perciformes Mugilidae Mugil

Cefalo comune o muggine,

Mugil cephalus, Linnaeus 1758


 

Nomi dialettali italiani - Liguria - Carida, Mussao, Musao. Toscana - Muggine caparello, Mazzone. Emilia - Zòevli. Lazio - Cefalo vero, Cefalo comune. Campania - Cefalo verace, Cefaro mazzone. Calabria - Cefalu verace. Puglia - Capocefalo, Capuozzo. Abruzzo - Cefalo mazzone, Mugella. Marche - Baldighera, Mazzone, Volpino. Triveneto - Volpina, Zèvoli, Maciato. Sicilia - Capulatu, Lustru, Mulettu.  Sardegna - Cefalu, Cafanu, Muzzulu.

 

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Nomi comuni esteri - Inglese - Striped mullet, Black mullet, Black true mullet, Bright mullet, Bully, Bully mullet, Callifaver mullet, Common grey mullet, Common mullet, Flathead grey mullet, Flathead mullet, Gray mullet, Grey mullet, Haarder, Hardgut mullet, Hardgut river mullet, Longaram mullet, Mangrove mullet, Mullet, Poddies, Poddy mullet, Sand mullet, Sea mullet, Springer Striped mullet. Francese - Muge, Muge à groose tête, Muge cabot, Muge céphale, Mulet, Mulet à grosse tête, Mulet bleu, Mulet cabot, Mulet cabot Mulet cabot Mulet cabot Mulet cabot Mulet jaune Mulet jeune Mulet-cabot Cabot Carida Carido Caridou Cremole, Meuil, Mugo fangous, Mujou, Müsaro, Poisson queue bleue, Testard, Testu. Spagnolo - Mugil, Mugil común, Albur, Bullûa, Cabeçut, Cabezudo, Cachamba, Cap pla, Capitán, Capiton, Céfalo, Galupe, Iliça de cap gros, Iliça sabada, Ilissa lobarrera, Lebranche, Lisa, Lisa cabezuda, Lisa común, Lisa pardete, Lisa rayada, Lissa amaria, Liza cabezona, Lizarra, Lizza, Llissa llobarrera, Machu, Machuto, Mujol, Mule, Muxo, Pardete, Pordete. Portoghese - Tainha, Tainha cabeça achatada, Tainha-olhalvo, Cagarraz, Cambiro, Curemà, Curimã, Curimã-í, Eirigo-do-rio, Jagede, Liça, Mugem, Nyarongue, Olhal, Olhalvo, Papalvo, Sibo, Tagana, Tainhota, Tamaratana, Tapiara, Tapuji, Tshulwa, Urichoa, Wutsuma. Tedesco - Flachkopf-Meeräsche, Gemeine Meeräsche, Gestreifte Meeräsche, Gewöhnliche Meeräsche, Gewöhnliche Meeräsche, Grossköpfige Meeräsche, Großkopf, Großkopf-Meeräsche, Harder. Olanda - Diklipharder. Afrikaans - Platkop-harder, Platkopharder. Danimarca - Multe, Storhovedet multe, Stribet multe. Svezia - Grå multe, Storhovad multe, Storhuvad multe, Tjockläppad multe. Islanda - Röndungur. Polonia - Mugil australijski, Mugil cefal. Federazione Russa - Loban, Chernaya kefalʹ. Bulgaria - Keffal, Morski cefal. Romania - Chefal, Chefal mare, Laban. Croazia - Babaš, Cipal batas, Cipal bataš, Cipal glavaš, Glavaš, Javra, Mulj, Skakavac, Skocac. Slovenia - Glavati cipelj. Serbia e Montenegro - Cipal, Cipal glavas, Cipli, Haskefal, Skocac glavas. Albania - Cumraku, Cumri, Gushtaku, Qefulli i veres, Qefulli i verës. Malta - Kaplat, Mulett, Mulett ta' l'iswed. Israele - Kifol gedol harosh, Kifon gdol hazosh. Turchia - Avrita balığı, Haskefal balığı, Kefal, Kefal balığı, Koklan balığı, Topan balığı, Topbaş balığı. Iran - Biah Srpehn, Kafal. Oman - Anubah, Asfatiya, Biyah, Gawafa, Gutarana. Arabia Saudita - Araaby, Beyah. Emirati Arabi Uniti - Biah. Marocco - Bouchakfa. Egitto - Bouri. Libano - Gharyb. Mauritania - Zoulé. Sierra Leone - Kunungui, Lombbie, Ma sek, Mollit. Senegal - Deem, Diabaï, Gis, Guiss, Jabaay, Sinal. Tanzania - Mkizi. Somalia - Caanood. Madagascar - Antafa, Antendro, Jompo, Tororaka, Zompona. Cina - Wu tau, Wu tau tze, Bái yǎn, Tóu zī, Zī, Zī yú. Corea - Sung-ǒ. Viet Nam - Cá Đối mục. Giappone - Bora. India - Ain, Bhomat, Boi, Gandhia, Mala, Thirutha, Tiruta, Tirutha, Boita, Bol, Mangan, Pilas, Pilsa, Sherto, Kasmeen, Madavai, Kathi-parenga, Kathiparega. Sri Lanka - Is barri godeya, Kitheya, Thel godeya, Manalei, Manla. Isole Comore - M'Hizi. Indonesia - Blaneut, Belanak, Gereh, Gerpuh, Gerita. Malesia - Andapong, Anding, Belanak, Jempol, Jumpul, Kedera, Rapang. Filippine - Balanak, Agwas, Gisaw, Banak, Lisas, Ugapang, Lul-luran, Porong, Balanak, Hurong, Perong, Bayanak, Aguas, Aligasin, Asubi, Talilong. Papua Nuova Guinea - Waloya. Nuova Caledonia - Maalan, Naxoc, Kôrômii, Kûrûmil. Nuova Zelanda - Kanae. Polinesia Francese - Auaree, Kapae. Tonga - Kanahe. Isole Hawaii - Ama'ama, Anae, Kahaha, O'ola, Pahaha, Pua, Pua 'ama, Pua 'ama'ama, Pua po'ola. Guiana Francese - Kapiiyut. Nuove antille - Calmou.

 

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Mugil cephalus Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae, Ed. X. (Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata.) Holmiae. Vol. 1: i-ii + 1-824. Catalogo - Fernholm & Wheeler 1983:257-258. In Atlantico occidentale potebbe essere sostituito da Mugil liza, vedere Menezes, De Oliveira, & Nirchio 2010: An old dilemma: the identity of the western south Atlantic lebranche mullet (Teleostei: Perciformes: Mugilidae). Zootaxa n° 2519: 59-68. Sinonimo senior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN valida. Opinioni - Nomenclatura specifica valida come Mugil cephalus Linnaeus 1758, sottospecie cephalus, vedere Kawanabe & Mizuno 1989:458, Cheng & Zhou 1997:241, Nakabo 2000:538, Pietsch et al. 2001:143, Sakai et al. 2001:104, Shimizu 2001:33, Shimizu 2001:34, Keith et al. 2002:110, Nakabo 2002:538, Kiyoshi 2003:37, Ataur Rahman 2003:301, Motomura et al. 2010:80. Nomenclatura specifica valida come Mugil cephalus Linnaeus 1758, vedere Berg 1949:992, Okada 1961:627, Trewavas 1973:567, Lee et al. 1980:779, Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:234, Cadwallader & Backhouse 1983:129, Dor 1984:192, Yoshino & Senou in Masuda et al. 1984:119, Smith 1986:437, Ben-Tuvia in Whitehead et al. 1986:1202, Robins & Ray 1986:212, Thomson 1986:348, Ortega & Vari 1986:19, Smith & Smith 1986:718, Wu & Lu in Kuang et al. 1986:203, Allen & Swainston 1988:110, Robison & Buchanan 1988:472, Scott & Scott 1988:400, Pequeño 1989:63, Paulin et al. 1989:205, Winterbottom et al. 1989:50, McAllister 1990:154, Thomson 1990:859, Allen 1991:147, Coad 1991:26, Liu & Shen 1991:275, Talwar & Jhingran 1991:896, Liang in Pan et al. 1991:345, Cervigón 1992:361, Albaret in Lévêque et al. 1992:783, Boschung 1992:153, Indra 1993:189, Krishnan & Mishra 1993:230, Etnier & Starnes 1993:379, Kuiter 1993:263, Kottelat et al. 1993:125, Swift et al. 1993:132, Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:167, Francis 1993:164, Gomon et al. 1994:662, Poll & Gosse 1995:107, Allen & Robertson 1994:194, Goren & Dor 1994:51, Knight & Hastings 1994:150, Harrison in Fischer et al. 1995:1297, Coad 1995:29, Zhu 1995:166, Mohsin & Ambak 1996:202, Thomson in McDowall 1996:193, Coad 1996:86, Mettee et al. 1996:745, Chen et al. 1997:37, Grove & Lavenberg 1997:460, Kottelat 1997:158, Murdy et al. 1997:186, Allen 1997:176, Thomson 1997:483, Larson & Williams 1997:364, Carpenter et al. 1997:204, Kim 1997:372, Arruda 1997:114, Takahashi et al. 1997:46, Reshetnikov et al. 1997:748, Sokolov 1998:115, Coad 1998:103, McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:875, Castro et al. 1998:79, Chirichigno & Vélez 1998:198, Sokolovskaya et al. 1998:12, Sato et al. 1998:40, Marquet et al. 1999:43, Chang et al. 1999:39, Fricke 1999:360, Keith et al. 1999:82, Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:181, Harrison & Senou 1999:2096, Mizuno et al. 1999:10, Mishra et al. 1999:87, Afonso et al. 1999:83, Johnson 1999:742, Fuller et al. 1999:277, Dyer 2000:85, Keith et al. 2000:20, Ruiz-Campos et al. 2000:72, Koutrakis & Economidis 2000:299, Senou in Randall & Lim 2000:625, Rafique 2000:327, Azeroual et al. 2000:20, Sadovy & Cornish 2000:48, Thomson et al. 2000:288, Bijukumar & Sushama 2000:187, Iwatsuki et al. 2000:103, Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:153, Chereshnev & Shestakov 2001:382, Hutchins 2001:38, Ross et al. 2001:345, Wang et al. 2001:204, Skelton 2001:351, Camargo & Isaac 2001:141, Kim & Park 2002:294, Allen et al. 2002:255, Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:107, Moyle 2002:441, Thompson in Collette & Klein-MacPhee 2002:277, Youn 2002:362, 630, López et al. 2002:64, Harrison 2003:1079, Mirza 2003:21, Harrison 2003:7, Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S113, Fedorov et al. 2003:131, Jang et al. 2003:119, Parin 2003:S16, Ghasemzadeh et al. 2004:9, Randall et al. 2004:8, Khan 2003:10, Nelson et al. 2004:97, Heemstra et al. 2004:3327, Miller & Robison 2004:279, Boschung & Mayden 2004:368, Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:367, Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:174, Randall 2005:77, Vassilev & Pehlivanov 2005:176, Ibáñez & Gallardo-Cabello 2005:305, Mundy 2005:278, Miller 2006:183, Hoese & Bray 2006:680, Scharpf 2006:37, Harrison et al. 2007:91, Fricke et al. 2007:67, Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:468, Vasil'eva 2007:63, Randall 2007:135, González Castro et al. 2008:319, Harrison 2007:459, Bogutskaya et al. 2008:347, Wirtz et al. 2007:27], Gomon 2008:393, Ninua & Japoshvili 2008:169, Fricke et al. 2009:30, Minckley & Marsh 2009:272, Menezes et al. 2010:59, McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:190, Matsunuma et al. 2010:82, Fricke et al. 2011:369, Page & Burr 2011:607, Durand et al. 2012:692, Trape et al. 2012:126, Whitfield et al. 2012:xx, Angulo et al. 2013:1003, Kottelat 2013:281, McMahan et al. 2013:446, Page et al. 2013:99, Barriga S. 2014:118, Fricke et al. 2014:36, Parin et al. 2014:191, Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:30, Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2015:892, Psomadakis et al. 2015:297, Trnski 2015:944, Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:406, Barbieri et al. 2015:87, Esmaeili et al. 2015:122, Çiçek et al. 2015:151, Kramer et al. 2016:unnumbered p., Pacheco-Almanzar et al. 2016:385, Miesen et al. 2016:83, Harrison 2016:2105, Durand 2016:32, Shen & Durand 2016:80, Durand & Whitfield 2016:107, Kells et al. 2016:116, Dyldin & Orlov 2017:73, Labatos 2017:4, Pusey et al. 2017:48, Esmaeili et al. 2017:87, Ali et al. 2018:341, Esmaeili et al. 2018:69, Freitas et al. 2018:77, Fricke et al. 2018:95, Golani & Fricke 2018:119, Kuiter 2018:67, Raz-Guzmán et al. 2018:345, Robins et al. 2018:181, Romero-Berny et al. 2018:89. Località tipo - Mari europei, Europa. Tipo - Nessuno. Possibili sintipi - NRM 43 (1), 44 (2), 143 (1).

Mugil albula Linnaeus, 1766:520. Systema naturae sive regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Laurentii Salvii, Holmiae. 12th ed. v. 1 (pt 1). Basato su multiple fonti, inclusi 'Albula bahamensis' di Catesby 1743:6, Pl. 6 (v. 2) [Bahamas], Mugil argenteus minor ... di Browne 1756:450 [Jamaica], una descrizione manoscritta ed uno specimen spedito da A. Garden [South Carolina]. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Mugil cephalus Linnaeus 1758, vedere Okada 1961:628, Smith 1986:437, Thomson 1997:484, Mundy 2005:278. Possibile sinonimo di Mugil Liza Valenciennes 1836, vedere Menezes et al. 2010:66. Località tipo - Carolina (South Carolina, USA), Jamaica e Bahamas. Tipo - Nessuno. Sintipi Linn. Soc. Lond. 139 (mezza pelle sinistra). Catalogo illustrato dei tipi - Wheeler 1985:63. Ulteriori informazioni sul tipo - Goode & Bean 1885:206.

Mugil ashanteensis, Bleeker 1863. Mémoire sur les poissons de la côte de Guinée. Natuurkundige Verhandelingen van de Hollandsche Maatschappij der Wetenschappen te Haarlem (Ser. 2) v. 18 [1862]: 1-136, col. Pls. 1-28. Pl. 19 (fig. 2). In originescritto ashanteënsis. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Mugil cephalus Linnaeus 1758, ma valida sottospecie, vedere Trewavas 1973:568, Ben-Tuvia in Whitehead et al. 1986:1203. Sinonimo di Mugil cephalus Linnaeus 1758, vedere Thomson 1986:348, Thomson 1990:859, Kottelat 1997:158, Thomson 1997:485. Località tipo - Ashantee, Guinea (Ghana). Tipo - Olotipo (unico) RMNH 1631. Olotipo illustrato in Boeseman 1963:Pl. 2 (fig. 4).

Myxus barnardi Gilchrist & Thompson, 1914. Descriptions of fishes from the coast of Natal (Part IV.). Annals of the South African Museum v. 13 (pt 3): 65-95. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Mugil cephalus Linnaeus 1758, vedere Smith & Smith 1986:718, Thomson 1997:485. Località tipo - Durban Bay, Natal, South Africa. Tipo - Olotipo (unico) SAM 12428.

Mugil berlandieri Girard, 1858. Notes upon various new genera and new species of fishes, in the museum of the Smithsonian Institution, and collected in connection with the United States and Mexican boundary survey: Major William Emory, Commissioner. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 10: 167-171. Vedere anche Girard 1859:20, Pl. 10 (fig. 1-4). Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Mugil cephalus Linnaeus 1758, vedere Okada 1961:628, Thomson 1997:485, Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:182. Possibile sinonimo di Mugil liza Valenciennes 1836, vedere Menezes et al. 2010:66. Località tipo - St. Joseph Island, Indianola, Brazos Santiago, Brazos, Galveston, Texas, USA. Tipo - Nessuno. Sintipi - USNM da 763 a 767 (4, 12, 5, 8, 12).

Mugil borbonicus Valenciennes, 1836. In Cuvier & Valenciennes 1836:113. Histoire naturelle des poissons. Tome onzième. Livre treizième. De la famille des Mugiloïdes. Livre quatorzième. De la famille des Gobioïdes. Histoire naturelle des poissons. v. 11: i-xx + 1-506 + 2 pp., Pls. 307-343. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Mugil cephalus Linnaeus 1758, vedere Thomson 1997:484, Fricke 1999:360. Sinonimo di Valamugil seheli con autore Cantor 1850 (= Cantor 1849), probabile errore di identificazione, vedere Harrison & Senou 1999:2107. Località tipo - Isola di Réunion, Mascarene occidentali, Oceano Indiano sud occidentale. Tipo - Olotipo (unico) MNHN A-3660. Catalogo illustrato dei tipi - Blanc & Hureau 1971:681.

Myxus caecutiens Günther, 1876. Remarks on fishes, with descriptions of new species in the British Museum, chiefly from southern seas. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 4) v. 17 (n° 101): 389-402. Scritto chiaramente caecutiens a pag. 389, poco chiaro se caecutiens o coecutiens a pag. 397. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Mugil cephalus Linnaeus 1758, vedere Thomson 1986:348, Kottelat 1997:158, Thomson 1997:485, Fricke 1999:361. Località tipo - Isola Rodrigues, Mascarene, Oceano Indiano sud occidentale. Tipo - Nessuno. Sintipi - BMNH 1876.3.11.31-32 (2).

Mugil catalarum Whitley, 1951. Studies in ichthyology. N° 15. Records of the Australian Museum v. 22 (n° 4): 389-408. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Mugil cephalus Linnaeus 1758, vedere Thomson 1997:485, Fricke & Kulbicki 2006:321. Località tipo - La Foa, fiume Bogny, Nuova Caledonia. Tipo - Olotipo (unico) AMS IB.2242.

Mugil cephalotus Valenciennes, 1636. In Cuvier & Valenciennes. Histoire naturelle des poissons. v. 11. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Mugil cephalus Linnaeus 1758, vedere Okada 1961:627, Trewavas 1973:567, Thomson 1986:348, Skelton 1993:351, Coad 1996:6, Kottelat 1997:158, Thomson 1997:484, Harrison & Senou 1999:2096, Mundy 2005:278. Località tipo - Pondicherry e Malabar, India. Tipo - Nessuno. Sintipi - MNHN 0000-8102 (1) Malabar, A-4645 (1, secco) Pondicherry, A-4698 (1, secco) Pondicherry. Catalogo illustrato dei tipi - Blanc & Hureau 1971:685.

Sparus cetaceus Cabrera, Pérez & Haenseler, 1817. Lista de los peces del mar de Andalucía. Imprenta Gaditana Esteban Picardo, Cádiz. Nomen nudum, nomenclatura non disponibile. Forse apparso in un lavoro inedito. Vedere anche Sparus cetaceus Cabrera, Pérez & Haenseler in Graells 1887. Opinioni in sinonimia di Mugil cephalus Linnaeus 1758, secondo gli autori del "Catalog of Fishes" della California Academy of Sciences. Provenienza degli esemplari esaminati - Mare di Andalusía (Andalusia occidentale, nei pressi di Cadice, Spagna, Oceano Atlantico orientale).

Sparus cetaceus, Cabrera, Pérez & Haenseler, 1887. In Graells. Ictiología ibérica. Memoria de los "Peces del mar de Andalucía": autógrafo inédito del Magistral Cabrera, que da á luz anotado el vocal naturalista de la Comisión central de Pesca. Revista de los Progresos de las Ciencias Exactas, Fisicas y Naturales, Madrid v. 22 (n° 3): 141-185. Nomen nudum, nomenclatura non disponibile. Vedere anche Sparus cetaceus Cabrera, Pérez & Haenseler 1817. Forse apparso in un lavoro inedito. Opinioni in sinonimia di Mugil cephalus Linnaeus 1758, secondo gli autori del "Catalog of Fishes" della California Academy of Sciences. Provenienza degli esemplari esaminati - Mare di Andalusía (Andalusia occidentale, nei pressi di Cadice, Spagna, Oceano Atlantico orientale).

Mugil ciliilabis Valenciennes, 1836. In Cuvier & Valenciennes. Histoire naturelle des poissons. v. 11. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Mugil cephalus Linnaeus 1758, vedere Thomson 1997:484. Località tipo - Lima, Peru. Tipo - Nessuno. Sintipi - MNHN A-3627 (7), A-3628 (6, in cattive condizioni). Catalogo illustrato dei tipi - Blanc & Hureau 1971:687-688.

Mugil constantiae Valenciennes, 1836. In Cuvier & Valenciennes. Histoire naturelle des poissons. v. 11. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Mugil cephalus Linnaeus 1758, vedere Thomson 1997:484. Località tipo - Acque dolci nei pressi di Constance. Tipo - Nessuno. Sintipi - MNHN da A-3663 a 3664 (1, 1); ZMB 1832 [ex MNHN] (1). Catalogo illustrato dei tipi - Blanc & Hureau 1971:688.

Mugil dobula Günther, 1861. Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum. Catalogue of the acanthopterygian fishes in the collection of the British Museum. 3. Gobiidae, Discoboli, Pediculati, Blenniidae, Labyrinthici, Mugilidae, Notacanthi. London. Vol. 3: i-xxv + 1-586 + i-x. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Mugil cephalus Linnaeus 1758, vedere Okada 1961:627, Liu & Shen 1991:275], Thomson 1997:485, Harrison & Senou 1999:2096, Mundy 2005:278, Hoese & Bray 2006:680. Località tipo - Australia e Aneiteum (Vanuatu, Nuove Ebridi). Tipo - Nessuno. Sintipi - (almeno 11) BMNH 1844.2.15.51-52 (2, mezze pelli secche), 1847.6.17.23 (1, mezza pelle secca), 1848.10.25.30 (1, mezza pelle secca), 1848.10.25.32 (1, impagliato), 1851.2.20.7-8 (2) Australia, coll. Macgillwray, 1860.7.18.3 (1).

Myxus flavus Mohr, 1927. Mugiliden-Studien. Zoologische Jahrbücher, Abteilung für Systematik, Geographie und Biologie der Tiere v. 54: 177-201. Fig. 4 a-b. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Mugil cephalus Linnaeus 1758, vedere Thomson 1997:485. Località tipo - Mazatlán, Sinaloa, Messico occidentale. Tipo - Lectotipo ZMH H58. Paralectotipi - (4) ZMH H395 (1). Catalogo illustrato dei tipi - Ladiges et al. 1958:162, Wilkens & Dohse 1993:405 (illustrazione come sintipo). Lectotipo designato da Ladiges et al. 1958:162.

Mugil galapagensis Ebeling, 1961. Mugil galapagensis, a new mullet from the Galápagos Islands, with notes on related species and a key to the Mugilidae of the eastern Pacific. Copeia 1961 (n° 3): 295-305. Fig. 1. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Nomenclatura specifica valida come Mugil galapagensis Ebeling 1961, vedere Allen & Robertson 1994:194, Grove & Lavenberg 1997:462. Sinonimo di Mugil cephalus Linnaeus 1758, vedere Thomson 1997:485, Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:182. Località tipo - Punta sud est dell'isola Barrington, Isole Galápagos. Tipo - Olotipo USNM 190589. Paratipi - SIO 55-256 (1), UCLA 55-314 (4), USNM 26683 (1). Più materiale aggiuntivo.

Mugil gelatinosus Klunzinger, 1872. Zur Fischfauna von Süd-Australien. Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 38 (n° 1): 17-47, Pl. 2. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Mugil cephalus Linnaeus 1758, vedere Liu & Shen 1991:275, Thomson 1997:485, Hoese & Bray 2006:680. Località tipo - Fiume Murray (Hobson's Bay), Sato di Victoria, Australia. Tipo - Olotipo (unico) SMNS 1563. Catalogo illustrato dei tipi - Fricke 1992:13, Fricke 2005:49.

Mugil grandis Castelnau, 1879. Essay on the ichthyology of Port Jackson. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 3 (pt 4): 347-402. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Mugil cephalus Linnaeus 1758, vedere Liu & Shen 1991:275, Thomson 1997:485, Hoese & Bray 2006:680. Località tipo - Port Jackson, New South Wales, Australia. Tipo - Nessuno. Sintipi - Irreperibili.

Mugil hypselosoma Ogilby, 1897. New genera and species of Australian fishes. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 22 (pt 1): 62-95. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Mugil cephalus Linnaeus 1758, secondo gli autori del "Catalog of Fishes" della California Academy of Sciences. Località tipo - Port Jackson e Botany Bay, Nuovo Galles del Sud, Australia. Tipo - Nessuno - Sintipi (2) QM.

Mugil japonicus Temminck & Schlegel, 1845. Fauna Japonica, sive descriptio animalium quae in itinere per Japoniam ... Parts 7-9: 113-172, Pls. 1-143 + A. Pl. 72 (fig. 1). Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Mugil cephalus Linnaeus 1758, vedere Berg 1949:992, Okada 1961:627, Thomson 1997:484, Harrison & Senou 1999:2096. Località tipo - Nagasaki, Giappone. Tipo - Lectotipo RMNH D1166 (impagliato). Paralectotipi - RMNH D1161-1165 (5, secco), ZMB 7193 (1). Lectotipo designato da Boeseman 1947:116.

Myxus lepidopterus Mohr, 1927. Zoologische Jahrbücher, Abteilung für Systematik, Geographie und Biologie der Tiere v. 54, Fig. 3. Nomenclatura soggettivamente non valida; secondariamente già occupata nel genere Mugil da Mugil lepidopterus Fowler 1918. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Mugil cephalus Linnaeus 1758. vedere Thomson 1997:485. Località tipo - Perù. Tipo - Olotipo (unico) ZMH H127, ex ZMH 2704. Catalogo illustrato dei tipi - Ladiges et al. 1958:162, Wilkens & Dohse 1993:405.

Mugil lineatus Valenciennes, 1836. Ex Mitchill. In Cuvier & Valenciennes. Histoire naturelle des poissons. v. 11. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Mugil cephalus Linnaeus 1758, vedere Okada 1961:628, Smith 1986:437. Possibile sinonimo di Mugil liza Valenciennes 1836, vedere Menezes et al. 2010:66. Località tipo - New York, USA. Tipo - Nessuno. Sintipi - MNHN 0000-5485 (3). Catalogo illustrato dei tipi - Blanc & Hureau 1971:694.

Mugil marginalis De Vis, 1885. New fishes in the Queensland Museum. No. 5. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 9 (pt 4): 869-887. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Mugil cephalus Linnaeus 1758, vedere Thomson 1997:485, Hoese & Bray 2006:681. Località tipo - Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. Tipo - Nessuno. Sintipi - ?QM I.121 (1), I.9774 (1).

Mugil mexicanus Steindachner, 1876. Ichthyologische Beiträge (III). Bemerkungen über Serranus nebulifer und S. clathratus sp. Gird. Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissen-schaftliche Classe v. 72 (1. Abth.): 29-96, Pl. 8. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Mugil cephalus Linnaeus 1758, vedere Okada 1961:628, Thomson 1997:485, Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:182, Minckley & Marsh 2009:273. Località tipo - Acapulco, Messico occidentale. Tipo - Olotipo (unico) NMW 67346. Illustrato a pag. 58 dell'allegato.

Mugil muelleri Klunzinger, 1879. Die v. Müller'sche Sammlung australischer Fische. Anzeiger der Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien v. 16 (n° 22): 254-261. Nell'originale il nome è scritto Mülleri ma i criteri ICZN non contemplano l'uso di dieresi. Compare anche in Klunzinger 1880:395. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Mugil cephalus Linnaeus 1758, vedere Liu & Shen 1991:275 scritto mulleri, Thomson 1997:485, Hoese & Bray 2006:681. Località tipo - King George Sound, Australia occidentale. Tipo - Olotipo (unico) SMNS 2572 (non reperito, probabilmente disperso). Catalogo illustrato dei tipi - Fricke 1992:13, Fricke 2005:49 datato 1880.

Myxus niger Mohr, 1927. Zoologische Jahrbücher, Abteilung für Systematik, Geographie und Biologie der Tiere v. 54. Fig. 5. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Mugil cephalus Linnaeus 1758, vedere Thomson 1997:485. Località tipo - Lima, Peru. Tipo - Lectotipo ZMH H174. Paralectotipi - (2). Catalogo illustrato dei tipi - Ladiges et al. 1958:162, Wilkens & Dohse 1993:405 come sintipo. Lectotipo designato da Ladiges et al. 1958:162.

Mugil crenilabis our, Forsskål. 1775. Descriptiones animalium avium, amphibiorum, piscium, insectorum, vermium; quae in itinere orientali observavit... Post mortem auctoris edidit Carsten Niebuhr. Hauniae. Descriptiones animalium quae in itinere ad Maris Australis terras per annos 1772 1773 et 1774 suscepto, ...: 1-20 + i-xxxiv + 1-164, map. Nell'originale è scritto öur a pag. 74, öûr a pag. xiv; evidentemente non è tedesco, perché la dieresi non è stata emendata a oeur. Mugil oecur Ogilby 1897 è risultato di un errore ortografico. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Mugil cephalus Linnaeus 1758, vedere Berg 1949:992, Okada 1961:627, Dor 1984:192, Thomson 1986:348, Talwar & Jhingran 1991:896, Coad 1996:6 scritto oeur, Kottelat 1997:158, Thomson 1997:484, Harrison & Senou 1999:2096 scritto oeur e öur, Harrison 2003:1079, Ataur Rahman 2003:301 scritto oeur. Località tipo - Nessuna località indicata, si ritiene Mar Rosso. Tipo - Olotipo (unico) ZMUC P71372 (pelle secca). Catalogo illustrato dei tipi - Nielsen 1974:73. L'olotipo è raffigurato in Klausewitz & Nielsen 1965:Pl. 36.

Myxus pacificus Steindachner, 1900. Anzeiger der Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien v. 16. Specie successivamente descritta più in dettaglio in Steindachner 1900:500, a pag. 18 dell'allegato. Status incerto, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Discutibile sinonimo di Mugil cephalus Linnaeus 1758, vedere Mundy 2005:278. Possibile immaturo di Chaenomugil leuciscus (Günther 1872), vedere Thomson 1997:545. Località tipo - Isola Laysan, Arcipelagi Leeward, Isole Hawaii. Tipo - Olotipo (unico) UMB (non reperito). Catalogo illustrato dei tipi - Wahlert 1955:326.

Mugil peruanus Hildebrand, 1946. A descriptive catalog of the shore fishes of Peru. Bulletin of the United States National Museum, n° 189: i-xi + 1-530. Fig. 82. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Mugil cephalus Linnaeus 1758, vedere Thomson 1997:485. Località tipo - Baia Independencia, nei pressi di La Lagunilla, Perù. Tipo - Olotipo USNM 127877. Paratipi - (più di 100) BMNH 1949.5.18.5-8 [ex USNM] (4?), USNM 77563 (21), 775876 (5), 127877-84 (1, 51, 32, 9, 5, 1, 17, 9).

Mugil plumieri Bloch, 1794. Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische. Berlin. Naturgeschichte der Ausländischen Fische. v. 8: i-iv + 1-174, Pl. 396. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Mugil cephalus Linnaeus 1758, vedere Okada 1961:628, Thomson 1997:484, Ross et al. 2001:347. Considerato come sfirenide da de Sylva 1975:84, attribuito a Bloch & Schneider, posto in sinonimia di Sphyraena barracuda. Possibile sinonimo di Mugil liza Valenciennes 1836, vedere Menezes et al. 2010:66. Località tipo - Isola St. Vincent, Indie occidentali. Tipo - Nessun esemplare noto. Illustrazioni a pag. 136 dell'Ittiologia di Bloch, v. 11.

Mugil provensalis Risso, 1810. Ichthyologie de Nice, ou histoire naturelle des poissons du département des Alpes Maritimes. F. Schoell, Paris. Ichthyol. Nice i-xxxvi + 1-388; 344. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Mugil cephalus Linnaeus 1758, vedere Trewavas 1973:567, Kottelat 1997:158, Thomson 1997:484, Harrison 2003:7. Elencato anche tra i sinonimi di Oedalechilus labeo (Cuvier 1829), vedere Trewavas 1973:573. Località tipo - Fiume Var, vicino Nizza, Département des Alpes-Maritimes, Francia, Mediterraneo nord occidentale. Tipo - Nessun esemplare noto.

Mugil rammelsbergii Tschudi, 1846. Ichthyologie. Pp. ii-xxx + 1-35, Pls. 1-6. In: Untersuchungen über die Fauna Peruana. Scheitlin & Zollikofer, St. Gallen. 1844-46, in 12 parti. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Mugil cephalus Linnaeus 1758, vedere Okada 1961:628, Thomson 1997:484, Grove & Lavenberg 1997:463. Località tipo - Isola di San Lorenzo, Perù. Tipo - Nessuno. Sintipi - ?MSNG 13911 [ex ZMB] (2); ZMB 1853-54 (1, 1). Catalogo illustrato dei tipi - Tortonese 1963:334, Kottelat 1987:51.

Myxus superficialis Klunzinger, 1870. Synopsis der Fische des Rothen Meeres. I. Theil. Percoiden-Mugiloiden. Verhandlungen der K.-K. zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien v. 20: 669-834. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Mugil cephalus Linnaeus 1758, vedere Dor 1984:192, Thomson 1997:485. Località tipo - Kosseir (Al-Qusair, Governorato del Mar Rosso, Egitto, Mar Rosso). Tipo - Nessuno. Sintipi - MCZ 3813 (2); SMF 1869 (2 or 3); SMNS 1743 or 1738 (3); ZIN 2640 (2, disperso); ZMB 10511 (1), 7999 (3). Catalogo illustrato dei tipi - Fricke 1992:13, Fricke 2005:49.

Mugil tang Bloch, 1794. Naturgeschichte der Ausländischen Fische. v. 8, Pl. 39. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Status incerto, vedere Trewavas 1973:567, Thomson 1997:545. Sinonimo di Mugil cephalus Linnaeus 1758, vedere Okada 1961:628, Kottelat 1997:158. Località tipo - Mar Rosso. Tipo - Lectotipo ZMB 1785. Paralectotipi - ZMB (1, disperso). Catalogo illustrato dei tipi - Paepke 1999:102. Illustrazioni a pag. 134 dell'Ittiologia di Bloch, v. 11. Lectotipo designato da Paepke 1999:102.

Myxus tincoides Mohr, 1927. Zoologische Jahrbücher, Abteilung für Systematik, Geographie und Biologie der Tiere v. 54, Fig. 8. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Mugil cephalus Linnaeus 1758, vedere Thomson 1997:485. Possibile sinonimo di Mugil liza Valenciennes 1836, vedere Menezes et al. 2010:66. Località tipo - Capo Hatteras, North Carolina, USA. Tipo - Lectotipo ZMH H72. Paralectotipi - ZMH H172 (1). Catalogo illustrato dei tipi - Ladiges et al. 1958:163, Wilkens & Dohse 1993:406 come sintipi. Lectotipo designato da Ladiges et al. 1958:163.

Mugil tongae Günther, 1880. Report on the shore fishes procured during the voyage of H. M. S. Challenger in the years 1873-1876. In: Report on the scientific results of the voyage of H. M. S. Challenger during the years 1873-76. Zoology. Vol. 1 (pt 6): 1-82, Pls. 1-32. Pubblicato anche come nuovo in Günther 1881:217. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Mugil cephalus Linnaeus 1758, vedere Thomson 1997:485. Località tipo - Tongatabu, Isole Tonga, Polynesia. Tipo - Olotipo (unico) BMNH 1879.4.14.497.

Mugil trichilus Vaillant & Sauvage, 1875. Note sur quelques espèces nouvelles de poissons des îles Sandwich. Revue et Magasin de Zoologie (Ser. 3) v. 3: 278-287. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Chaenomugil leuciscus (Günther 1872), Thomson 1997:477. Sinonimo di Neomyxus leuciscus (Günther 1872). Sinonimo di Mugil cephalus Linnaeus 1758, ma disponibile come sottospecie hawaiana se necessario, vedere Randall 2007:135. Località tipo - Isole Hawaii. Tipo - Nessuno. Sintipi - MNHN 0000-8073 (3), 0000-8074 (3), A-0467 (2). Catalogo illustrato dei tipi - Blanc & Hureau 1971:699-700.

Mugil vulpinus Nardo, 1847. Ex Chiereghini. Sinonimia moderna delle specie registrate nell'opera intitolata: "Descrizione de' crostacei, de' testacei e de' pesci che abitanno le lagune e golfo veneto rappresentati in figure à chiaro-scuro ed a colori." Venezia. Nomenclatura non disponibile, il nome di Chiereghini è usato come sinonimo. Opinioni - In sinonimia di Mugil cephalus Linnaeus 1758, vedere Kottelat 1997:158.

 

 

Fonti bibliografiche principali - Kottelat M. and J. Freyhof 2007. Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Kottelat, Cornol, Switzerland and Freyof, Berlin, Germany. Pagina 468-469.

 

 

Distribuzione di Mugil cephalus secondo IUCN

 

 

Specie cosmopolita, diffusa nelle acque litorali delle zone tropicali e subtropicali di tutti i mari. Nel Pacifico orientale si incontra dalla California al Cile. In Atlantico occidentale è presente dalla Nuova Scozia fino al Brasile, da Capo Cod al Golfo del Messico, assente dalle isole Bahamas ed in larga parte delle Indie Occidentali e dei Caraibi. In Atlantico orientale si incontra dal Golfo di Biscaglia al Sud Africa. Presente nei bacini di mar Mediterraneo e Mar Nero.

 

 

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