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Le Faune Webmuseum Osteichthyes Perciformes Percidae Gymnocephalus

L'acerina, Gymnocephalus cernua 

(Linnaeus, 1758)


 

Nomi comuni esteri - Inglese - Ruff, Ruffe, Pope. Francese - Grémille, Grémeuille, Frash, Goujon-perche, Greuillet, Grimau, Perche goujonnière. Spagnolo - Acerina. Tedesco - Kaulbarsch, Kulbersch, Kulberschke, Kutt, Kütteberschi, Gries, Pfaffenlaus, Posch, Rauiegel, Rotzbarb, Rotzbarsch, Rotzkater, Rotzwolf, Rötzert, Schlickerbarsch, Schnotterbarsch, Schnotterboars, Schroll, Steuerbarsch, Stuhrt. Olanda - Pos. Danimarca - Almindelig Hork. Svezia - Gärs. Norvegia - Hork. Finlandia - Kiiski. Ucraina - Yorsz zvychainyi. Federazione Russa - Yersh obyknovennyi, Yorsz zvychainyi. Polonia - Jazgarz. Estonia - Kiisk. Lettonia - Kisis. Lituania - Pugžlys. Repubblica Ceca - Ježdík obecný. Repubblica Slovacca - Hrebenacka obycajná. Romania - Balos, Firizar, Ghelmes, Ghibort, Mos. Cina - Méihuā lú (梅花鱸 梅花鲈).

 

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Note sul nome scientifico - Esiste una discussione sul genere del nome specifico usato in nomenclatura abbinato al nome generico maschile Gymnocephalus. Non è chiaro se debba essere usato il nome declinato al maschile cernuus o al femminile cernua. Secondo Kottelat & Freyhof (2009), il nome cernua è apparentemente un sostantivo, e quindi cernuus non dovrebbe essere usato. Ma in latino abbiamo cernuus, cernui, come sostantivo maschile, II declinazione = funambolo, saltimbanco, per cui usare il femminile cernua con il nome generico maschile Gymnocephalus è errato. Analogamente se cernuus è usato come aggettivo (con significato di prono, chino, che precipita a capofitto) si hanno i seguenti cernuus, cernuă, cernuum, rispettivamente per il maschile, femminile e neutro, ed anche in questo caso l'uso del femminile cernua per Gymnocephalus è errato. In ogni caso il nome Gymnocephalus cernua è stato accettato come valido in sede ICZN e quindi, fino ad ulteriori disposizioni, deve essere usato come nome della specie.

 

 

Gymnocephalus cernua (Linnaeus, 1758). Systema Nat. ed. X, v. 1. Sinonimo senior, nuova combinazione, nomenclatura specifica valida secondo i criteri ICZN.

Perca cernua Linnaeus, 1758. Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Holmiae. Ed. X i-ii + 1-824; v. 1 294. Sinonimo senior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura specifica non valida secondo ICZN. Opinioni - Nomenclatura specifica valida come Acerina cernua (Linnaeus 1758), vedere Berg 1949:1046, Zhu 1995:172. Nomenclatura specifica valida come Gymnocephalus cernuus (Linnaeus 1758), vedere Collette & Bănărescu 1977:1453, Coad 1981:16, Lelek 1987:285, Page & Burr 1991:276, Coad 1995:27, Chereshnev 1996:606, Kottelat 1997:172, Reshetnikov et al. 1997:749, Popova 1998:117, Scott & Crossman 1998:viii, Fuller et al. 1999:385, Lyons et al. 2000:57, Bogutskaya et al. 2001:47, Chereshnev et al. 2001:122, Bianco & Ketmaier 2001:201, Hanel 2003:64, Parin 2003:S3, Bailey et al. 2004:199, Nelson et al. 2004:136, Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:205, Vassilev & Pehlivanov 2005:177, Hanel & Lusk 2005:362, Kottelat 2006:90, Fricke 2007:29, Fricke et al. 2007:81, Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:528, Kottelat & Freyhof 2009:85, Scharpf 2008:35, Geiger & Schliewen 2010:131, Page & Burr 2011:511 come cernua. Località tipo - Laghi europei. Sintipi BMNH 1853.11.12.5 coll. Gronovius (1, pelle), LS 2 (mezza pelle sinistra). Catalogo illustrato dei tipi - Wheeler 1958:219, Wheeler 1985:51.

Gymnocephalus cernuus (Linnaeus, 1758). Systema Nat. edizione X, volume 1. Sinonimo senior, nuova combinazione, nomenclatura specifica non valida secondo i criteri ICZN. Vedere sopra per ulteriori chiarimenti.

Acerina czekanowskii Dybowski, 1874. Die Fische des Baical-Wassersystemes. Verhandlungen der K.-K. zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien v. 24 (n° 3 - 4): 383-394. In origine scritto czekanowskü. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura specifica non valida secondo i criteri ICZN. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Acerina cernua (Linnaeus 1758), vedere Berg 1949:1046. Sinonimo di Gymnocephalus cernua (Linnaeus 1758), vedere Kottelat 1997:172. Località tipo - Corso medio ed inferiore del fiume Angara, Siberia, Russia. Tipo - Nessuno. Sintipi - Irreperibili.

Acerina cernua natio danubica Vladykov, 1931. Poissons de la Russie sous-carpathique (Tchécoslovaquie). Memoires Societe Zoologique de France v. 29 (no. 4): 217-374. Combinazione originale. Nomenclatura infrasubspecifica, non disponibile secondo i criteri ICZN. Opinioni - In sinonimia di Acerina cernua (Linnaeus 1758), vedere Berg 1949:1331. In sinonimia di Gymnocephalus cernua (Linnaeus 1758), vedere Kottelat 1997:172. Provenienza del materiale esaminato - Bacino del fiume Tisza. Catalogo illustrato dei tipi - Sanda et al. 2010:31.

Acerina cernus essipovi Burmakin, 1941. Some poor commercial and uncommercial fishes from the system of the Guidansky gulf (sturgeon, omul', pike, ruffe, sculpin, stickleback). Trudy Instituta polyarnogo zemedeliya v. 15: 149-158. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura specifica non valida secondo i criteri ICZN. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Acerina cernua (Linnaeus 1758), vedere Berg 1949:1047. Sinonimo di Gymnocephalus cernua (Linnaeus 1758), vedere Kottelat 1997:172, Parin 2003:S3. Località tipo - Baia di Gyda, Oceano Arctico; Fiume Yuribei, Siberia, Russia. Tipo - Nessuno. Sintipi - (5) irreperibili.

Acerina fischeri Eichwald, 1873. Spiciléges de paléontologie et de zoologie de la Russie. Archives de zoologie expérimentale et générale (Paris) v. 2: xiii-xvi. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura specifica non valida secondo i criteri ICZN. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Acerina cernua (Linnaeus 1758), vedere Berg 1949:1046. Sinonimo di Gymnocephalus cernua (Linnaeus 1758), vedere Kottelat 1997:172. Località tipo - Laghi della Provincia di Tomsk, Russia. Tipo - Nessun esemplare noto.

Cernua fluviatilis Fleming, 1828. A history of British animals, exhibiting the descriptive characters and systematical arrangement of the genera and species of quadrupeds, birds, reptiles, fishes, mollusca, and radiata of the United Kingdom; including the indigenous, extirpated, and extinct kinds, together with periodical and occasional visitants. Edinburgh. Vol. i-xxiii + 1-565. In parte basato su Perca cernua Linnaeus 1758. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura specifica non valida secondo i criteri ICZN. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Gymnocephalus cernua (Linnaeus 1758), vedere Kottelat 1997:172. Località tipo - Fiumi d'Inghilterra. Tipo - Nessun esemplare noto.

Holocentrus post Lacepède, 1802. Histoire naturelle des poissons. Histoire naturelle des poissons. v. 4: i-xliv + 1-728, Pl. 1-16. Combinazione originale. Considerato nuovo nome non necessario per Perca cernua Linnaeus 1758. nomenclatura specifica non valida secondo i criteri ICZN. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Gymnocephalus cernua (Linnaeus 1758), vedere Kottelat 1997:172.

Acerina vulgaris Cuvier, 1829. In Cuvier & Valenciennes. Histoire naturelle des poissons. Tome troisième. Suite du Livre troisième. Des percoïdes à dorsale unique à sept rayons branchiaux et à dents en velours ou en cardes. Histoire naturelle des poissons. v. 3: i-xxviii + 2 pp. + 1-500, Pls. 41-71. Basato su alcuni esemplari e fonti letterarie. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura specifica non valida secondo i criteri ICZN. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Acerina cernua (Linnaeus 1758), vedere Berg 1949:1046. Sinonimo di Gymnocephalus cernua (Linnaeus 1758), vedere Kottelat 1997:172, Popova 1998:117. Località tipo - Europa. Tipo - Nessuno. Sintipi - MNHN 0000-6604 (1), 0000-6607 (3). Catalogo illustrato dei tipi - Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:79-80.

 

 

Fonti bibliografiche principali - Kottelat M. and J. Freyhof 2007. Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Kottelat, Cornol, Switzerland and Freyof, Berlin, Germany. Pagina 528 - 529.

 

 

Distribuzione di Gymnocephalus cernua secondo IUCN

 

 

Specie a larga distribuzione, presente in Europa nelle acque dolci e salmastre dei bacini del mar Caspio, mar Nero, mar Baltico, Mare del Nord, e della Gran Bretagna. In Scandinavia giunge a nord fino al 69° parallelo. La sua diffusione si estende in Asia nel bacino del Mare d'Aral e nel bacino dell'Oceano Artico, dal Mar Bianco ad est fino al bacino del fiume Kolyma. Introdotta o invasiva in Francia ad ovest del Reno, in Italia settentrionale, Scozia settentrionale, e Grecia. In Italia la specie è stata segnalata per la prima volta nel bacino dell'Isonzo a metà degli anni '80, apparentemente proveniente dalla Slovenia, ed al momento risulta acclimatata in vari fiumi del Nord-Est. Introdotta accidentalmente nel bacino dei Grandi Laghi in America settentrionale.

 

 

Introduzioni di Gymnocephalus cernua
Periodo Provenienza Paese ospite Acclimatazione

non conosciuto

ignota

Canada

si

1982

ignota

Gran Bretagna

si

1985

Europa orientale

Italia

si

1986

Europa

USA

si

 

 

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