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Webmuseum Osteichthyes Perciformes Percidae Perca

Pesce persico o persico reale,

Perca fluviatilis, Linnaeus 1758


 

Nomi dialettali italiani - Veneto - Persego, Persec, Zebra, Pesse persero. Lombardia - Pes persic, Pes persech, Pes persigh, Guelb, Berton, Bertuscell, Bandirolo. Piemonte - Pes pasi, Pess persic, Pesc persi, Pess perssi, Perca. Liguria - Pes persic Emilia. Romagna - Pes persec, Pes persegh, Persic, Persegeín, Pàs perseg, Pes persog. Campania - Cerchia. Sicilia - Precchia di sciumi. Sardegna - Pisci persicu.

 

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Nomi comuni esteri - Inglese - Perch, English perch, Eurasian perch, European perch, Reddie, Redfin, Redfin perch, River perch. Francese - Perche, Perche européenne, Perche fluviatile, Barsch, Boyat, Brell, Cochonnet, Hurlin, Jôlerie, Perchat, Perchaude, Percho, Perchot, Perco, Percot. Tedesco - Flussbarsch, Flußbarsch, Akpauz, Akpuz, Anbeiss, Anpass, Bantz, Barsch, Barschig, Barsching, Barsig, Beerschke, Bersch, Berschinger, Berschke, Berschling, Berse, Bersich, Berster, Bertsch, Boars, Bors, Bundelbarsch, Buntbarsch, Bürsch, Bürschling, Bürstel, Bürstling, Bärling, Bärs, Bärsch, Bärschke, Bärschling, Bärsig, Börs, Börsch, Börschling, Egli, Graubarsch, Heuerling, Hürling, Jagebarsch, Kieferwurm, Knetzer, Krautbarsch, Kretzer, Krätzer, Netzkretzer, Peerschke, Persching, Persing, Pirschling, Pirsing, Pischling, Pärschke, Pörsch, Pörsching, Pörschke, Rerling, Sandkrätzer, Schnaz, Schranzen, Schratz, Schratzen, Schrotzen, Streifbarsch, Tiefenbarsch, Zockkrätzer, Zogkretzer. Spagna - Perca europea. Portogallo - Perca-europeia, Perca. Irlanda - An phéirse mhara, Peirse. Olanda - Baars. Danimarca - Aborre, Almindelig Aborre, Europæisk aborre. Svezia - Abborre. Norvegia - Abbor, Åbor. Finlandia - Ahven. Islanda - Aborri. Estonia - Harilik ahven. Lettonia - Asaris. Lituania - Ešerys. Polonia - Okon. Federazione Russa - Okunʹ, rechnoĭ okunʹ, Obyknovennyĭ okunʹ, Obyknovennyi okun'. Ucraina - Rechnoi okun. Repubblica Ceca - Okoun rícní, Okoun rícní, Ostriez. Repubblica Slovacca - Ostriež. Ungheria - Sügér. Romania - Biban, Costrâş. Bulgaria - Kostur, Rechen kostur. Repubblica di Macedonia - Ostriz. Grecia - Prikí, Pérka, Chaní, Kakoxýstra, Perkí, Pérca chaní, Perki. Albania - Sharmak, Sharmaku, Sharroku. Serbia - Grgec. Kyrgyzstan - Kadimki alabuga. Turchia - Tatlisu levregi, Tatlisulevregi baligi. Iran - Bacheh Suf, Soof-e-hajitarkhan, Suf Haji Tarkhan, Mahi Suf Rudkhaneh-y, Mahi-ye Khardar, Suf Rudkhaneh-ye. Cina - Ōuzhōu hé lú, Lú (hé lú).

 

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Perca fluviatilis Linnaeus 1758. Systema Naturae, Ed. X. (Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata.) Holmiae. Systema Naturae, Ed. X. v. 1: i-ii + 1-824. Forse intenzionalmente abbreviato in fluvialis da Cuvier 1829:132. Vedi note sistematiche in Kottelat 2006:59-60. Sinonimo senior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura specifica valida secondo i criteri ICZN. Opinioni - Nomenclatura specifica valida come Perca fluviatilis Linnaeus 1758, secondo Berg 1949:1032, Collette & Bănărescu 1977:1452, Coad 1981:16, Cadwallader & Backhouse 1983:174, Paxton et al. 1989:561, Paulin et al. 1989:179, Oliva et al. 1989:214, Shcherbuka 1992:25, Skelton 1993:289, Coad 1995:27, Zhu 1995:172, McDowall in McDowall 1996:183, Chereshnev 1996:606, Coad 1996:86, Chilcott & Humphries 1996:147, Kottelat 1997:172, Reshetnikov et al. 1997:749, Coad 1998:103, Morgan et al. 1998:43, Popova 1998:118, Azeroual et al. 2000:20, Bogutskaya et al. 2001:47, Chereshnev et al. 2001:123, Hutchins 2001:32, Bianco & Ketmaier 2001:201, Sideleva 2001:56, Skelton 2001:289, Allen et al. 2002:368, Fedorov et al. 2003:132, Sideleva 2003:11, Hanel 2003:63, Parin 2003:S4, Hammer & Walker 2004:91, Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:205, Vassilev & Pehlivanov 2005:177, Hanel & Lusk 2005:355, Kottelat 2006:59, Ocock et al. 2006:59, Paxton et al. 2006:1080, Fricke 2007:29, Fricke et al. 2007:81, McPhail 2007:000, Ninua & Japoshvili 2008:171, Esmaeili et al. 2010:375, Marshall 2011:209, Hammer et al. 2012:66, Parin et al. 2014:355, Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2015:895, Roberts & McDowall 2015:1215, Barbieri et al. 2015:103, Çiçek et al. 2015:151, Zhang et al. 2016:195, Esmaeili et al. 2017:94, Romanov et al. 2017:826, Esmaeili et al. 2018:76, Kuiter 2018:100 . Località tipo - Europa. Tipo - Nessuno. Sintipi - BMNH 1853.11.12.3 coll. Gronovius (1, pelle), LS 1 (mezza pelle sinistra). Catalogo illustrato dei tipi - Wheeler 1958:219, Wheeler 1985:52.

Perca fluviatilus Linnaeus, 1758. Systema Nat. ed. 10 v. 1 289. Errore ortografico, nomenclatura non valida secondo i criteri ICZN.

Perca vulgaris var. aurata Fitzinger, 1832. Ueber die Ausarbeitung einer Fauna des Erzherzogthumes Oesterreich, nebst einer systematischen Aufzählung der in diesem Lande vorkommenden Säugethiere, Reptilien und Fische.... Beitraege zur Landesk. von Oesterreich v. 1: 280-340. Nomenclatura non disponibile, descrizione priva di caratteristiche distintive, non valida secondo i criteri ICZN. Opinioni - In sinonimia di Perca fluviatilis Linnaeus 1758, secondo Kottelat 1997:173. Provenienza del materiale esaminato - Fiumi Danubio, Leytha e Schwarza, lago Traunsee, Austria.

Perca fluviatilis var. aurea Smitt, 1893. A history of Scandinavian fishes, by B. Fries, C. U. Ekström, and C. Sundevall. 2nd edition, revised and completed by F. A. Smitt. Stockholm & London, 1893-95. v. 1 (1893): 1-566 + i-viii; v. 2 (1895):567-1240. Plates: part 1:1-27, part 2:27-53. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura specifica non valida secondo i criteri ICZN. Forse può essere trattato come infrasubspecifico non disponibile secondo Kottelat 1997:172). Opinioni sinonimo di Perca fluviatilis Linnaeus 1758, secondo Kottelat 1997:173. Località tipo - Bacino del lago Mälaren, Svezia. Tipo - Olotipo NRM 35750.

Perca fluviatilis var. gibba Smitt, 1893. A history of Scandinavian fishes, ..., 29, 30, Fig. 3 - 4. Nomenclatura considerata infrasubspecifica non disponibile, non valida secondo i criteri ICZN. Opinioni - In sinonimia di Perca fluviatilis Linnaeus 1758, secondo Kottelat 1997:173.

Perca helvetica Gronow, 1854. In Gray. Catalogue of fish collected and described by Laurence Theodore Gronow, now in the British Museum. London. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura specifica non valida secondo i criteri ICZN. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Perca fluviatilis Linnaeus 1758, secondo Wheeler 1958:219, Kottelat 1997:173. Località tipo - Nei pressi di Basilea, Svizzera. Tipo - Nessuno. Sintipi - BMNH 1853.11.12.2 coll. Gronovius (1, pelle). Catalogo illustrato dei tipi - Wheeler 1958:219 ma come olotipo.

Perca fluviatilis intermedius Svetovidov & Dorofeeva, 1963. Systematics, origin, and history of the distribution of the Eurasian and North American perches and pikeperches (genera Perca, Lucioperca, and Stizostedion). Voprosy Ikhtiologii v. 3 (4, 29): 625-651. Diagnosi e nuovo nome nella chiave di riconoscimento, olotipo citato a piè di pagina. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura specifica non valida secondo i criteri ICZN. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Perca fluviatilis Linnaeus 1758, secondo Kottelat 1997:173, Kottelat 2006:59. Località tipo - Fiume Kolyma, Siberia, Russia. Tipo - Olotipo ZIN 23998.

Perca italica, Cuvier 1828. In Cuvier & Valenciennes. Histoire naturelle des poissons. Tome second. Livre Troisième. Des poissons de la famille des perches, ou des percoïdes. Volume 2: i-xxi + 2 pp. + 1-490, Pls. 9-40. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura specifica non valida secondo i criteri ICZN. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Perca fluviatilis Linnaeus 1758, secondo Kottelat 1997:173. Località tipo - Bologna, Italia. Tipo - Nessuno. Sintipi - MNHN 0000-6570 (2). Catalogo illustrato dei tipi - Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:82.

Perca fluviatilis var. macedonica Karaman, 1924. [Pisces Macedoniae. Split (Hrvatska Stamparija). Pisces Macedoniae.: 1-90. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura specifica non valida secondo i criteri ICZN. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Perca fluviatilis Linnaeus 1758, secondo Kottelat 1997:173. Località tipo - Fiume Vadar River a Veles, Lago Dojran, Repubblica di Macedonia. Tipo - Nessuno. Sintipi - (molti) IEBMT.

Perca fluviatilis var. maculata Smitt, 1893. A history of Scandinavian fishes, by B. Fries, C. U. Ekström, and C. Sundevall. 2nd edition, revised and completed by F. A. Smitt. Stockholm & London, 1893-95. v. 1 (1893): 1-566 + i-viii; v. 2 (1895):567-1240. Plates: part 1:1-27, part 2:29, 30, Fig. 5. Forse nome infrasubspecifico non disponibile (secondo Kottelat 1997:172). Se considerato disponibile sarebbe oggettivamente non valido; già occupato da Perca maculata Bloch 1792. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura specifica non valida secondo i criteri ICZN. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Perca fluviatilis Linnaeus 1758, secondo Kottelat 1997:173. Località tipo - Lago Tisaren, Nerike (Närke), Svezia. Tipo - Nessuno. Sintipi - ?NRM 35749 (1).

Perca fluviatilis var. nigrescens Heckel, 1837. Ichthyologische Beiträge zu den Familien der Cottoiden, Scorpaenoiden, Gobioiden und Cyprinoiden. Annalen des Wiener Museums der Naturgeschichte v. 2 (n° 1): 142-164, Pls. 8-9. Nomenclatura non disponibile, descrizione priva di caratteristiche distintive, non valida secondo i criteri ICZN. Opinioni - In sinonimia di Perca fluviatilis Linnaeus 1758, secondo Kottelat 1997:173. Provenienza del materiale esaminato - Fiume Marizza R. vicino a Philippoli in Rumelia, Bulgaria.

Perca vulgaris Schaeffer, 1761. [Piscium Bavarico-Ratisbonensium pentas. Cum tabulis iv. Aeri incisis icones coloribus suis distinctas exhibentibus.; ref. 3910] Nomenclatura considerata non disponibile, lavoro giudicato non binomiale come Schaeffer 1760. Specie descritta col nome di "vvlgaris" a causa deglli antichi caratteri di stampa ed equivale a  Asper vulgaris. Opinioni - In sinonimia di Perca fluviatilis Linnaeus 1758, secondo Kottelat 1997:172. Località tipo - Fiume Danubio, a Regensburg, Batavia, Germania. Tipo - Nessun esemplare noto.

Perca vulgaris Schrank, 1792. Nähere Bestimmung dreier Barscharten. Abh. Privatges. Naturforsch. Oekonom. Oberdeutschland. v. 1: 98-103. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura specifica non valida secondo i criteri ICZN. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Perca fluviatilis Linnaeus 1758, secondo Kottelat 1997:173. Località tipo - Regensburg, Germania. Tipo - Nessuno. Sinonimi -  ZSM (vecchia collezione distrutta nella seconda guerra mondiale). Catalogo illustrato dei tipi - Neumann 2006:278.

Perca vulgaris Fitzinger, 1832. Ueber die Ausarbeitung einer Fauna des Erzherzogthumes Oesterreich, nebst einer systematischen Aufzählung der in diesem Lande vorkommenden Säugethiere, Reptilien und Fische.... Beitraege zur Landesk. von Oesterreich v. 1: 280-340. Basato su fonti di letteratura. Nome oggettivamente non valido; già occupato da Perca vulgaris Schrank 1792. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Perca fluviatilis Linnaeus 1758, secondo Kottelat 1997:173. Località tipo - Regensburg, Germania; Austria; fiumi Danubio, Leytha e Schwarza; Lago Traunsee; Austria. Tipo - Nessun esemplare noto.

Perca fluviatilis zaissanica Dianov, 1955 (data incerta). The Lake Zaisan perch. Dissertation, Institute of Zoology Akademia Nauk Kazakhstan. Originale non visionato. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura specifica non valida secondo i criteri ICZN. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Perca fluviatilis Linnaeus 1758, secondo Kottelat 1997:173, Kottelat 2006:59 [ref. 28831]). Sottospecie non chiaramente riconosciuta, secondo Reshetnikov et al. 1997:749. Località tipo - Lago Zaissan, Kazakhstan. Tipo - Nessun esemplare noto.

 

Fonti bibliografiche principali - Kottelat M. and J. Freyhof 2007. Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Kottelat, Cornol, Switzerland and Freyof, Berlin, Germany. Pagina 530 - 531.

 

 

Distribuzione originaria di Perca fluviatilis secondo IUCN

 

 

Il persico reale è diffuso dai Pirenei fino alla Siberia ed al fiume Kolyma, introdotto recentemente in Spagna e nell'Italia peninsulare ed isole. In Italia la specie, probabilmente alloctona, è diffusa da molto tempo nel Settentrione. Largamente introdotta per fini alieutici in molti paesi, spesso ha causato gravi problemi ecologici.

 

 

Introduzioni di Perca fluviatilis
Periodo Provenienza Paese ospite Acclimatazione

non conosciuto

ignota

Spagna

si

non conosciuto

ignota

Isole Azzorre

si

non conosciuto

ignota

Portogallo

si

1700 - 1799

Inghilterra

Irlanda

si

1970 - 1979

ignota

Xinjiang

si

1860

ignota

Italia

si

1862

Gran Bretagna

Tasmania e Victoria, AU

si

1867

Tasmania

Nuova Zelanda

si

1915

Gran Bretagna

Sud Africa

si

1939

Svizzera

Marocco

si

1971

Gran Bretagna

Cipro

si

 

 

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