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Il salmone atlantico, Salmo salar

Linnaeus, 1758


 

Nomi comuni esteri - Francese - Saumon atlantique, Tacon atlantique, Saumon d'eau douce. Inglese - Salmon, Atlantic salmon, Bay salmon, Black salmon, Landlocked salmon, Sea salmon, Silver salmon, Breeder, Sebago salmon, Caplin-scull salmon, Common Atlantic salmon, Salmon peel, Slink, Fiddler, Spring fish, Spring salmon, Grilse, Grilt, Ouananiche, Ouinanish, Outside salmon. Galles - Eog. Tedesco - Lachs, Las, Atlantischer Salmon, Echter Lachs, Salm, Salmling. Spagnolo - Salmón del Atlántico, Salmón, Salmó. Portoghese - Salmâo-do-atlântico, Salmao, Salmão. Grecia - Solomós, Solomos. Olanda - Zalm, Hengst, Ijle zalm, Jacobzalm. Danimarca - Nedfaldslaks, Laks, Atlanterhavslaks, Atlantisk laks. Svezia - Gullspångslax, Vraklax. Norvegia - Laks, Laks atlantisk. Islandese - Skællaks, Lax, Hoplax. Finnico - Lohi, Kutenut lohi. Gaelico - An bradán, Bradan. Polonia - Losos, Losos szlachetny albo atlantycki. Russia - Losos, Amerikanskiy atlanticheskiy losos', Semga. Serbia - Losos, Salmon. Repubblica Ceca - Losos atlantsky, Losos obecný. Repubblica Slovacca - Losos obycajný. Romania - Somon de Atlantic. Turchia - Alabalik atlantik. Giappone - Sake masu-rui. Lingua inuit - Kapisalirksoak, Kapisilik, Kavisilik, Kebleriksorsoak, Kumaliq, Saama, Saamakutaak, Sâma, Saamarug. Lingua Salish - Shmexwalsh, Shamet skelex, Schaanexw, Sináech, Sk'wel'eng's schaanexw, Spak'ws schaanexw, St'thkway', Slhop' schaanexw, K'wit'thet, K'wolexw.

 

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Salmo salar Linnaeus, 1758. Systema Naturae, Ed. X. (Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata.) Holmiae. Systema Naturae, Ed. X. v. 1: i-ii + 1-824. Sinonimo senior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN valida. Opinioni - Nomenclatura valida come Salmo salar Linnaeus 1758, vedere Berg 1948:205, Dymond 1963:460, Svetovidov 1973:145, Lee et al. 1980:108, Svetovidov in Whitehead et al. 1984:381, Smith 1986:228, Robins & Ray 1986:76, Lelek 1987:97, Scott & Scott 1988:129, Paxton et al. 1989:165, Pequeño 1989:29, Paulin et al. 1989:91, McAllister 1990:85, Page & Burr 1991:50, Talwar & Jhingran 1991:720, Stearley & Smith 1993:21, Davies & McDowall in McDowall 1996:85, Chereshnev 1996:604, Coad 1996:85, Chilcott & Humphries 1996:145, Kottelat 1997:138, Murdy et al. 1997:99, Reshetnikov et al. 1997:729, Dorofeeva & Savvaitova 1998:35, Scott & Crossman 1998:192, Dorofeeva 1998:438, Fricke 1999:28, Fuller et al. 1999:257, Dyer 2000:89, Lyons et al. 2000:66, Musick et al. 2000:11, Bogutskaya et al. 2001:46, Hutchins 2001:18, Kocik & Friedland in Collette & Klein-MacPhee 2002:174, Allen et al. 2002:359, Kuzishchin et al. 2002:751, Mecklenburg et al. 2002:202, Delling 2002:298, López et al. 2003:67, Wydoski & Whitney 2003:89, Hanel 2003:57, Nelson et al. 2004:86, Bailey et al. 2004:155, Hammer & Walker 2004:91, Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:157, Delling & Doadrio 2005:55, Hanel & Lusk 2005:299, Paxton et al. 2006:414, Scharpf 2006:33, Fricke 2007:25, Fricke et al. 2007:56, Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:404, Raadik 2008:213. Località tipo: mari europei e fiumi. Tipo: non è noto nessun esemplare tipo. Un neotipo e stato designato da Fricke 1999:28, ma risulta ritirato in Fricke 2000:639.

Trutta salar (Linnaeus, 1758). Systema Nat. ed. 10 v. 1 308. Sinonimo senior, nuova combinazione, nomenclatura ICZN non valida.

Salmo brevipes Smitt, 1882. Schematisk framställning af de i Riksmuseum befintliga laxartade fiskarnes slägtskapsförhål-landen. Öfversigt af Kongliga Vetenskaps-Akademiens förhandlingar, Kungliga Svenska Vetenskapsakademien. v. 39 (n° 8) [per il 1882]: 31 - 40. Originale non visionato. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Salmo salar Linnaeus 1758, vedere Berg 1948:206, Svetovidov 1973:145, Kottelat 1997:139, Dorofeeva & Savvaitova 1998:35. Località tipo - Arkhangelsk [Arcangelo], Russia; Svezia. Tipo - Nessuno. Sintipi - Naturhistoriska Riksmuseet, Stoccolma, Svezia, 24881 (2).

Salmo salar brevipes Smitt, 1882. Oefvers. Vetensk. Akad. Förh. v. 39 (n° 8) 32. Sinonimo junior, cambio di grado, nomenclatura ICZN non valida.

Salmo caerulescens Schmidt, 1795. Versuch eines Verzeichnisses aller in Böhmen bisher bemerkten Thiere. Sammlung physikalisch-ökonomischer Aufsätze: zur Aufnahme der Naturkunde und deren damit verwandten Wissenschaften in Böhmen. v. 1: 64-68. Nomen nudum, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - In sinonimia di Salmo salar Linnaeus 1758, vedere Kottelat 1997:139. Provenienza del materiale esaminato - Fiume Moldau [Moldavia], Republica Ceca.

Salmo salar europaeus Payne, Child & Forrest, 1971. Geographical variation in the Atlantic salmon. Nature (Lond.) 250-252; v. 231 (n° 5300) 251. Nomenclatura ICZN non valida: nome sottospecifico non necessario per le popolazioni di salmone atlantico che si riproducono nei fiumi europei, inoltre se queste fossero considerate come sottospecie il nome corretto dovrebbe essere Salmo salar salar Linnaeus 1758. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Salmo salar Linnaeus 1758, vedere Kottelat 1997:139. Località tipo - Europa. Tipo - Nessun esemplare noto.

Salmo gloverii Girard, 1854. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 7 (n° 3). Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Salmo salar Linnaeus 1758, vedere Dymond 1963:498 (scritto gloveri). Località tipo - Affluenti superiori del fiume Union, Maine, U.S.A. Tipo - Nessuno. Sintipi - USNM 3586 (1).

Salmo goedenii Bloch, 1784. M. Marcus Elieser Bloch's ..., ausübenden Arztes zu Berlin, Oeconomische Naturgeschichte der Fische Deutschlands. Berlin, v. 3 155 Pl. 102. Catalogo - Paepke 1999:124. A p. 132 dell' Ittiologia di Bloch, v. 3. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Salmo salar Linnaeus 1758, vedere Kottelat 1997:139. Località tipo - Mar Baltico a Rügenwalde, Hinterpommern (ora Darlowo, Polaonia occidentale). Tipo - Zoologisches Museum, Humboldt Universitat, Berlino, Germania, 3710.

Salmo gracilis Couch, 1865. The history of the fishes of the British islands. Hist. Fish. Brit. Is. i-iv + 1-439; v. 4 216 Pl. 216. Nome già occupato da Salmo gracilis Valenciennes 1848, in Cuvier & Valenciennes, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Salmo salar Linnaeus 1758, vedere Kottelat 1997:139, Dymond 1963:498. Località tipo - Porto di Fowey, U.K.. Tipo - British Museum, Natural History, Londra.

Salmo hamatus Cuvier, 1829. Le Règne Animal, distribué d'après son organisation, pour servir de base à l'histoire naturelle des animaux et d'introduction à l'anatomie comparée. Edition 2, v. 2, 303. Catalogo - Bertin 1940:301-302. Basato su Bloch, Pl. 98. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni: sinonimo di Salmo salar Linnaeus 1758, vedere Svetovidov 1973:145, Kottelat 1997:139, Dymond 1963:497. Località tipo - Europa. Tipo - Nessuno. Possibili sintipi - Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Parigi, Francia, 0777 (1), A-1064 (1), A-8841 (1, diseccato), A-8553 (1, diseccato).

Salmo hardinii Günther, 1866. Catalogue of fishes in the British Museum. Catalogue of the Physostomi, containing the families Salmonidae, Percopsidae, Galaxidae, Mormyridae, Gymnarchidae, Esocidae, Umbridae, Scombresocidae, Cyprinodontidae, in the collection of the British Museum, v. 6, 107. Basato su fonti letterarie ed esemplari conservati. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Salmo salar Linnaeus 1758, vedere Kottelat 1997:139, Dymond 1963:498. Località tipo - Lago Vänern, Svezia. Tipo - Nessuno. Sintipi - British Museum, Natural History, Londra, U.K., 1864.11.9.14 (1).

Salmo Salar var. lacustris Hardin, 1862. Öfversigt af Kongliga Vetenskaps-Akademiens förhandlingar, Kungliga Svenska Vetenskapsakademien. v. 18. Nome già occupato da Salmo lacustris Linnaeus, 1758, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Salmo salar Linnaeus 1758, vedere Kottelat 1997:139. Località tipo - Lago Vänern, Svezia. Tipo - Nessun esemplare noto.

Salmo nobilis Olafsen, 1772. Vice-Lavmand Eggert Olafsens of Land-Physici Biarne Povelsens Reise igiennem Island. Lindgren, Sorse, 83 o 65. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Salmo salar Linnaeus 1758, vedere Dymond 1963:497, Svetovidov 1973:145, Kottelat 1997:139. Località tipo - Svezia; Heller-Aa, Kortolfstade-Aa e Lar-Aa, Islanda. Tipo - Nessun esemplare noto.

Salmo nobilis Pallas, 1814. Zool. Rosso-Asiatica v. 3 342. Status: omonimo junior di Salmo nobilis Olafsen 1772:65. Nome già occupato da Salmo nobilis Olafsen 1772 nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Trattato come sinonimo di Salmo salar Linnaeus 1758, vedere Berg 1948:205, Kottelat 1997:139, Dorofeeva & Savvaitova 1998:35. Località tipo - Baltico, Artico, mar Bianco, fiumi della Livonia [ora Estonia e Lituania], Estonia, nord della Russia. Tipo - Nessun esemplare noto.

Salmo salar var. nobilis Smitt, 1895. A history of Scandinavian fishes, by B. Fries, C. U. Ekström, and C. Sundevall. 2nd edition, revised and completed by F. A. Smitt. Stockholm & London, 1893-95. v. 1 (1893): 1-566 + i-viii; v. 2 (1895):567-1240. Plates: part 1:1-27, part 2:27-53. Fig. 210, 212A; Pls 37-38. Non è una descrizione originale, ma viene trattata come tale da alcuni autori. Nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - In sinonimia di Salmo salar Linnaeus 1758, vedere Svetovidov 1973:145. Nessuna citazione di esemplari tipo e sulla loro località tipo.

Salmo ocla Nilsson, 1832. Prodromus ichthyologiae Scandinavicae. Lundae. Prodromus ichthyologiae Scandinavicae: i-iv + 1-124. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Salmo salar Linnaeus 1758, vedere Svetovidov 1973:145, Kottelat 1997:139. Località tipo - Älvkarleby sul fiume Dalälfven, a nord di Uppsala, Svezia. Tipo - Nessun esemplare noto.

Salmo salar ouananiche McCarthy, 1894.Titolo sconosciuto. In Forest and Stream 10 Mar. 1894. Originale non visionato. Informazioni, ma nessun nome latinizzato compaioni in McCarthy 1894. Figura anche come "Salmo salar ouananiche McCarthy M.S., nuova sottospecie" in Jordan & Evermann 1896:487. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Salmo salar Linnaeus 1758, vedere Dymond 1963:498, Smith 1986:230, Scott & Crossman 1998:193. Località tipo - Canada. Tipo - Nessun esemplare noto.

Trutta salar relicta Malmgren, 1863. Kritisk öfversigt af Finlands fisk-fauna. Kritisk öfversigt af Finlands fisk-fauna.: 75 pp. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Salmo salar Linnaeus 1758, vedere Berg 1948:229, Kottelat 1997:139, Dymond 1963:498. Località tipo - Lago Ladoga a Kexholm, Finlandia [ora in Russia]. Tipo - Nessuno. Sintipi - Collocazione ignota, forse al Zoological Museum, Helsinki, Finlandia.

Salmo salar brevipes morpha relictus Berg, 1932. Übersicht der Verbreitung der Süßwasserfische Europas. Zoogeographica, Jena v. 1 (n° 2): 107-208, Pl. 2. Nome infrasubspecifico, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Omonimo junior di Trutta relicta Malmgren, 1863. Opinioni - In sinonimia di Salmo salar Linnaeus 1758, vedere Kottelat 1997:139. Provenienza del materiale esaminato - Popolazioni landlocked dei laghi Segosero e Wygosero, bacino del fiume Wyg, Russia.

Salmo renatus Lacepède, 1803. Histoire naturelle des poissons. Histoire naturelle des poissons. v. 5: i-lxviii + 1-803 + index, Pls. 1-21. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Salmo salar Linnaeus 1758, vedere Kottelat 1997:139. Località tipo - Fiume Mosella, Francia. Tipo - Nessun esemplare noto.

Salmo rilla Lacepède, 1803. Histoire naturelle des poissons. Histoire naturelle des poissons. v. 5: i-lxviii + 1-803 + index, Pls. 1-21. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Salmo salar Linnaeus 1758, vedere Kottelat 1997:139. Località tipo - Fiume Rille, tributario del fiume Senna, Francia. Tipo - Nessun esemplare noto.

Salmo salar saimensis Seppovaara, 1962. Zur Systematik und Ökologie des Laches und der Forellen in den Binnengewässern Finlands. Annales zoologici Societatis zoologicae Botanicae Fennicae Vanamo v. 24: 1-84. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Salmo salar Linnaeus 1758, vedere Kottelat 1997:139. Località tipo - Iso-Saimaa, Finlandia. Tipo - Nessun esemplare noto.

Salmo salmo Valenciennes 1848. In Cuvier & Valenciennes. Histoire naturelle des poissons. Tome vingt et unième. Suite du livre vingt et unième et des Clupéoïdes. Livre vingt-deuxième. De la famille des Salmonoïdes, v. 21, 169, Pl. 614. Catalogo: Bertin 1940:301. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Salmo salar Linnaeus 1758, vedere Kottelat 1997:139. Località tipo - Dieppe, Fecamp, Abbeville, Canale della Manica, Mare del Nord, Belgio, Olanda, Inghilterra, Berlino. Tipo - Nessuno. Sintipi - Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Parigi, Francia, A-8552 (1, diseccato), A-8559 (1, diseccato).

Salmo salmulus Walbaum, 1792. Petri Artedi Sueci Genera piscium. In quibus systema totum ichthyologiae proponitur cum classibus, ordinibus, generum characteribus, specierum differentiis, observationibus plurimis. Redactis speciebus 242 ad genera 52. Ichthyologiae, pars iii. Artedi Piscium Pt. 3. 65. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Salmo salar Linnaeus 1758, vedere Kottelat 1997:139. Località tipo - Fiume Wye, corso superiore del Severn e suoi tributari, nord Inghilterra e Galles, U. K.. Tipo - Nessuno. Sintipi - collocazione attuale ignota.

Salmo sebago Girard, 1853. On a new species of the genus Salmo. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 6 (n° 10): 380. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Salmo salar Linnaeus 1758, vedere Berg 1948:229, Dymond 1963:498, Smith 1986:228, Scott & Crossman 1998:193. Sinonimo di Salmo salar Linnaeus 1758, ma valida sottospecie, vedere Menni 2004:85. Citazioni - Dorofeeva & Savvaitova 1998:35. Vedere anche Reshetnikov et al. 1997:72. Località tipo - Lago Sebago, southern Maine, U.S.A. Tipo - Nessun esemplare noto.

Salmo salar tasmanicus Johnston, 1889. The Salmonidae in Tasmania. Papers and Proceedings Royal Society of Tasmania 1888: xv-xvi. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Salmo salar Linnaeus 1758, vedere Paxton et al. 1989:165, Paxton et al. 2006:414. Località tipo - Tasmania, Australia. Tipo - Nessun esemplare noto.

 

 

Note sulla sistematica - Le popolazioni di S. salar nord americane ed europee, distinte per numero di cromosomi, pattern enzimatici, e per analisi del DNA (Guyomard, 1994:147; Taggart et al., 1995), di fatto costituiscono due distinte linee genetiche. Payne et al. (1971) hanno stabilito che non esistono scambi genetici tra i due gruppi e li trattano come sottospecie distinte. Data però la grande differenza genetica, sarebbe più giusto considerarle specie distinte secondo i criteri PSC. Anche se non si conoscono lavori che dimostrano la presenza di significative differenze genetiche tra salmoni anadromi e forme land-locked in Europa, lo status di alcune popolazioni meriterebbe di essere approfondito con nuovi studi. Esistono forme anadrome e lacustri che vivono in simpatria nei laghi russi Ladoga ed Onega (L. S. Berg, 1948: 233; O. K. Berg, 1985: 210). Gruppi di popolazioni viventi permanentemente in acqua dolce esistono (o esistevano) nel lago Vanern in Svezia, nel lago Bygglandsfjord e nei fiumi Namsen e Nidelva in Norvegia, nei laghi Saimaa e nel bacino del Pielinen in Finlandia (L. S. Berg, 1948: 233; O. K. Berg, 1985), popolazioni con origine indipendente che dovrebbero essere studiate separatamente da quelle dei laghi Ladoga ed Onega. La popolazione diffusa nel lago Saimaa presenta un diverso numero di cromosomi (Seppovaara, 1962: 30).

 

 

Fonti bibliografiche principali - Kottelat M. and J. Freyhof 2007. Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Kottelat, Cornol, Switzerland and Freyof, Berlin, Germany. Pagina 404 - 407.

 

 

Distribuzione originaria di Salmo salar secondo Fishbase

 

 

L'area di distribuzione comprende, nell'emisfero nord, le zone temperate e artiche dell'Oceano Atlantico. In Atlantico orientale è distribuita nei bacini fluviali delle isole britanniche, della Scandinavia, del mar Baltico, fino al golfo di Biscaglia ed al Portogallo. Nell'Atlantico occidentale la specie è presente nei bacini fluviali costieri dal nord del Quebec in Canada fino al Connecticut in USA. Popolazioni che vivono permanentemente in acqua dolce sono presenti in Russia, Finlandia, Svezia, Norvegia, nord America. Introdotta, con acclimatazione, in sud America ed Australia.

 

 

Introduzioni di Salmo salar
Periodo Provenienza Paese ospite Acclimatazione

non conosciuto

ignota

ex URSS

no

non conosciuto

ignota

fiume Giordano

no

non conosciuto

ignota

Grecia

no

1933 - 1934

Scozia

Columbia Britannica

no

1970 - 1979

fiume Neva (ex URSS)

Finlandia

si

1985 - 1987

Norvegia

Islanda

non probabile

1988 - 1989

Norvegia

Turchia

no

1864 - 1910

Germania

Nuova Zelanda

si

1864 - 1910

Gran Bretagna

Nuova Zelanda

si

1864 - 1870

USA

Australia

si

1864 - 1910

Nord America

Nuova Zelanda

si

4886

ignota

Italia

no

1896

Scozia

Sud Africa

no

1904

Canada

Argentina

si

1929

Olanda

Indonesia

no

1935

Germania

Cile

si

1935

ignota

Portogallo

non probabile

1957

USA

Brasile

no

1960

Gran Bretagna

Isole Kerguelen

no

1960

Nord America

India

non probabile

1960

Gran Bretagna

Isole Falkland

no

1971

USA

Cipro

no

1982

Norvegia

fiume Giordano

no

1984

Scozia

fiumi Asón e Nansa

ignota

1987

Nord America

Gran Bretagna

si

 

 

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Bigelow, H. B., M. G. Bradbury, J. R. Dymond, J. R. Greeley, S. F. Hildebrand, G. W. Mead, R. R. Miller, L. R. Rivas, W. L. Schroeder, R. D. Suttkus and V. D. Vladykov, 1953. Fishes of the Western North Atlantic. Soft-rayed bony fishes. Mem. Sears. Found. Mar. Res. 1(Pt. 3):630p. 460, fig 120-123.

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Blanc, M., J. L. Gaudet, P. Banarescu and J. C. Hureau, 1971. European inland water fish: a multilingual catalogue. Fishing News (Books) Ltd. London.

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Boothroyd, E. R., 1959. Chromosome studies on three Canadian populations of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. Can. J. Genet. Cytol. 1:161-172.

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