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Il salmerino di torrente, Salvelinus fontinalis (Mitchill, 1814)


 

Nomi dialettali italianiEmilia Romagna - Salmereio. Liguria, Lombardia, Piemonte, Veneto - Salmerin.

 

 

Nomi comuni esteri - Francese - Omble de fontaine, Saumon de fontaine, Truite mouchetée. Spagnolo - Salvelino, Trucha de arroyo. Portoghese - Truta-das-fontes. Greco - Salvelinos, Σαλβελίνος. Inglese - Aurora trout, Baiser, Breeder, Brook char, Brook trout, Brookie, Char, Coaster, Common brook trout, Eastern brook trout, Eastern speckled trout, Humpbacked trout, Lord-fish, Mountain trout, Mud trout, Native trout, Salter, Slob, Speckled char, Speckled trout, Specks, Squaretail, Square-tail, Squaretailed, Whitefin. Tedesco -  Amerikanischer Bachsaibling, Bachsaibling. Olanda - Bronforel. Afrikaans - Beekforel. Danimarca - Kildeorred, Kildeørred. Svezia - Bäckröding. Norvegia - Bekkeror, Bekkerøye, Bekkerøyr. Islanda - Lindableikja. Finlandia - Puronieriä. Polonia - Pstrag zrodlany. Russia - Amerikanski goletz, Amerikanskiy golets. Bulgaria - Siven. Romania - Fântânel, Pastrav fântânel. Ungheria - Pataki szajbling. Serbia - Kanadska pastrva, Potocna zlatovcica. Repubblica Ceca - Siven americky. Repubblica Slovacca - Sivon potocny. Turchia - Kaynak alabalygy. Giappone - Kawamasu. Lingua Aleuta - Giigaq. Lingua Inuit (Eschimese) - Aanaatlik, Aanak, Ana, Âna, Anakleq, Anokik, Anuk, I ha luk, Iqaluk, Iqaluk tasirsiutik. Lingua Cree - Masamek, Masamekos, Masamekw, Masumèk.

 

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Salvelinus fontinalis Mitchill 1814. Rept. Fish N. Y. 12. Sinonimo senior, nuova combinazione, nomenclatura ICZN valida.

Salmo fontinalis Mitchill, 1814. Report, in part, of Samuel L. Mitchill, M. D., ... on the fishes of New-York.: 1-28. Anche in Mitchill 1815:435. Sinonimo senior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Nomenclatura valida come Salvelinus fontinalis (Mitchill 1814), vedere Okada 1961:730, Lee et al. 1980:114, Araga in Masuda et al. 1984:37, Smith 1986:233, Robins & Ray 1986:77, Robison & Buchanan 1988:127, Scott & Scott 1988:141, Paxton et al. 1989:165, Pequeño 1989:29, Paulin et al. 1989:91, Kawanabe & Mizuno 1989:132, McAllister 1990:86, Tomelleri & Eberle 1990:53, Page & Burr 1991:48, Talwar & Jhingran 1991:722, Etnier & Starnes 1993:350, Skelton 1993:264, Stearley & Smith 1993:21, La Rivers 1994:264, Jenkins & Burkhead 1994:575, Balon 1995:107, Coad 1995:25, Baxter & Stone 1995:192, Stauffer et al. 1995:240, Davies & McDowall in McDowall 1996:86, Chereshnev 1996:604, Coad 1996:85, Mettee et al. 1996:427, Andersen & Deacon 1996:130, Sigler & Sigler 1996:208, Murdy et al. 1997:98, Thurow et al. 1997:1106, Fuller et al. 1999:262, Dyer 2000:89, Lyons et al. 2000:40, Nakabo 2000:300, Bianco & Ketmaier 2001:200, Skelton 2001:264, Allen et al. 2002:359, Kocik & Friedland in Collette & Klein-MacPhee 2002:179, Mecklenburg et al. 2002:197, Nakabo 2002:300, Moyle 2002:300, López et al. 2003:67, Wydoski & Whitney 2003:100, Hanel 2003:58, Nelson et al. 2004:86, Bailey et al. 2004:157, Seegers et al. 2003:40, Hammer & Walker 2004:91, Menni 2004:85, Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:160, Vassilev & Pehlivanov 2005:165, Hanel & Lusk 2005:313, Paxton et al. 2006:415, Scharpf 2006:34 con sottospecie, Fricke et al. 2007:56, Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:456. Località tipo - torrenti della Contea di Rockland, New York, U.S.A. Tipo - Nessun esemplare noto.

Baione fontinalis (Mitchill, 1814). Sinonimo senior, nuova combinazione, nomenclatura ICZN non valida.

Salmo alleganiensis Rafinesque, 1820. Ichthyologia Ohiensis [Part 4]. Western Revue and Miscellaneous Magazine v. 2 (n° 3): 169-177. Anche in Rafinesque 1820:44. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Salvelinus fontinalis (Mitchill 1814). Località tipo - Fiumi Alleghany e Monongahela, U.S.A.. Tipo - Nessun esemplare noto.

Salmo canadensis Griffith & Smith, 1834. The class Pisces, arranged by the Baron Cuvier, with supplementary additions, by Edward Griffith, F.R.S., &c. and Lieut.-Col. Charles Hamilton Smith, F.R., L.S.S., &c. &c. In: Cuvier, G: The animal kingdom, arranged in conformity with its organization, by the Baron Cuvier, member of the Institute of France, &c. &c. &c., with supplementary additions to each order, by Edward Griffith ... and others. Descrizione basata su un disegno di C. H. Smith. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Salvelinus fontinalis (Mitchill 1814), vedere Scott & Crossman 1998:213. Località tipo - Canada. Tipo - Nessun esemplare noto.

Salmo erythrogaster DeKay, 1842. Zoology of New-York, or the New-York fauna; comprising detailed descriptions of all the animals hitherto observed within the state of New-York, with brief notices of those occasionally found near its borders, and accompanied by appropriate illustrations. Part IV. Fishes. W. & A. White & J. Visscher, Albany. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Salvelinus fontinalis (Mitchill 1814), vedere Smith 1986:234. Località tipo - Lago Indian, Contea di Hamilton; Lago Janet, Contea di St. Lawrence; Contea di Franklin e Contea di Essex, New York; Silver Lake, Pennsilvania, U.S.A. Tipo - Nessun esemplare noto.

Salmo hudsonicus Suckley, 1861. Notices of certain new species of North American Salmonidae, chiefly in the collection of the N. W. Boundary Commission, in charge of Archibald Campbell, Esq., Commissioner of the United States, collected by Doctor C. B. R. Kennerly, naturalist to the... Annals of the Lyceum of Natural History of New York v. 7 (art. 30): 306-313. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Salvelinus fontinalis (Mitchill 1814), vedere Scott & Scott 1988:137, La Rivers 1994:264, Scott & Crossman 1998:213. Località tipo - Baia di Hudson e suoi tributari; New York, U.S.A.; Labrador e Newfoundland, Canada. Tipo - Nessuno. Sintipi - National Museum of Natural History, Washington, USA, 3594 (2).

Salmo immaculatus Storer, 1850. Observations on the fishes of Nova Scotia and Labrador, with descriptions of new species. Boston Journal of Natural History v. 6: 247-270, Pls. 7-8. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Salmo salar Linnaeus 1758, vedere Dymond 1963:497. Sinonimo di Salvelinus fontinalis (Mitchill 1814), vedere Scott & Crossman 1998:213. Località tipo - Torrente tributario della Red Bay, Labrador, Canada. Tipo - Olotipo (unico) ?MCZ 32955 (ex BSNH 502).

Salvelinus timagamiensis Henn & Rinckenbach, 1925. Description of the aurora trout (Salvelinus timagamiensis) a new species from Ontario. Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 16: 131-141, plus foldout table, Pls. 8-9. Catalogo - Ibarra & Stewart 1987:77. Sinonimo junior, combinazione originale, nomenclatura ICZN non valida. Opinioni - Sinonimo di Salvelinus fontinalis (Mitchill 1814), ma valida sottospecie, vedere Scott & Scott 1988:145, McAllister 1990:86, Scharpf 2006:34. Sinonimo di Salvelinus fontinalis (Mitchill 1814), vedere Scott & Crossman 1998:213. Località tipo - Lago White Pine, Gamble Township, Timagami Forest Reserve, Ontario, Canada. Tipo - Olotipo al Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, U.S.A., 70514. Paratipi - Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, U.S.A., 70515.

 

 

Fonti bibliografiche principali - Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr, 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. 432 p. Pagina: 48.

 

 

Distribuzione di europea di Salvelinus fontinalis (da http://www.europe-aliens.org)

 

 

Specie originaria del nord America: Canada orientale da Terranova al lato occidentale della baia di Hudson; Grandi Laghi e bacini fluviali del Mississippi, dal Minnesota alla Georgia settentrionale negli Stati Uniti. Introdotta, con acclimatazione, nelle regioni temperate di altri continenti: Francia, Gran Bretagna, Germania, Austria, Belgio, Norvegia, Svezia, Danimarca, Finlandia, Bulgaria, Ungheria, Romania, Svizzera, Slovacchia, Repubblica Ceca, ex Jugoslavia, Polonia, Spagna, Russia, Alaska, British Columbia, Cile, Argentina, Venezuela, Bolivia,  Perù, isole Falkland, isole Kerguelen, Kenya, Zimbabwe, Sud Africa, Iran, Giappone, Nuova Zelanda, Australia, Papua New Guinea. Introdotta dal Nord America nel 1891, in Italia la specie viene allevata in molte aziende di troticoltura, è presente nelle acque libere in tutto l’arco alpino, ed è stata introdotta in alcuni laghi e corsi d’acqua dell'Italia centrale e meridionale.

 

 

Introduzioni di Salvelinus fontinalis
Periodo Provenienza Paese ospite Acclimatazione

1900 - 1924

ignota

Alaska

probabile

1900 - 1924

USA

ex URSS

no

1925 - 1949

Germania

Ungheria

probabile

XIX secolo

Austria

Romania

si

XIX secolo

Belgio

Olanda

no

non conosciuto

ignota

isole Kerguelen

si

non conosciuto

Canada

Cile

si

non conosciuto

ignota

Ecuador

nessun dato

non conosciuto

ignota

Grecia

no

non conosciuto

ignota

Lettonia

nessun dato

non conosciuto

ignota

Russia

si

non conosciuto

ignota

Lituania

nessun dato

non conosciuto

USA

Messico

no

non conosciuto

ignota

Iran

probabile

non conosciuto

ignota

Gran Bretagna

nessun dato

1900 - 1997

ignota

Portogallo

no

1941 - 1945

Cile

isole Falkland

si

1990 - 1999

ignota

Turchia

si

1877 - 1887

USA

Nuova Zelanda

si

1980 - 1899

USA

Belgio

probabile

1868

USA

Gran Bretagna

si

1870

Danimarca

Norvegia

si

1872

Germania

Svezia

si

1872

Danimarca

Svezia

si

1876

California, USA

Hawaii

no

1881

Germania

Polonia

si

1883

ignota

Australia

si

1883

Germania

Svizzera

si

1890

ignota

Slovacchia

si

1890

ignota

Repubblica Ceca

si

1890

USA

Germania

si

1891

USA

Italia

si

1892

Austria

ex Jugoslavia

probabile

1895

USA

Finlandia

probabile

1895

Germania

Finlandia

probabile

1895

Germania

Danimarca

si

1896

Germania

Estonia

no

1901

USA

Giappone

si

1904

USA

Grenoble, Francia

si

1904

USA

Argentina

si

1908

Quebec, Canada

Columbia Britannica

si

1930

ex Cecoslovacchia

Bulgaria

probabile

1934

Francia

Spagna

probabile

1937

USA

Venezuela

si

1941

Francia

Marocco

no

1948

Cile

Bolivia

si

1950

USA

Sud Africa

no

1950

Gran Bretagna

Kenya

si

1955

USA

Perù

si

1955

Sud Africa

Zimbabwe

si

1955

ignota

Colombia

no

1960

Canada

India

non probabile

1970

Germania

Austria

si

1971

Italia

Cipro

no

1974

Australia

Papua Nuova Guinea

si

 

 

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